(NO OUTSIDE SOURCES PLEASE)In the Sacred Texts booklet, you will find three Jewish texts, three Christian texts and three Islamic texts.For each of the religious systems:Select one of the texts and explain why you have chosen it as most representative of the religious system;Address the reasons why the other two readings were not, in your assessment, as representative. You MAY NOT use outside sources to make your case. Limit yourself to the text itself, your lecture notes and your textbook.Formulate reflective essay responses and use textual citations to defend your assertions.Do not summarize unless necessary to make a point. (I have read these texts…many times.)FORMATTINGCalibri 11pt; double-spacing; 3 ENTIRE pages (minimum and maximum) with bibliography on a fourth page.Use in-text citations for direct quotes from sacred texts (Book Chapter: Verse; e.g. Jb 38: 4), and Chicago Manual of Style (Links to an external site.) for all other textual references. No double-spacing in footnotes.
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How to trade in rubies and diamonds,
My blessed guru has shown me the way.
Rubies lie scattered in the square –
Worldly people walk over them.
In this direction a blind man comes;
In the other a blind man is going.
Blind man meets blind man –
Who can show the way?
The unknowing cannot discern;
they leave them and walk away.
But those who understand pick them up –
My beloved has shown me the way.
Everyone is crying, “Ruby, Ruby”;
They all put forward a cloth to receive.
But none unties the knot to see what lies within
And so they are bereft of all.
The fly sits in the honey
Bound up in its sticky wings.
So hard to fly away, O Compassionate One,
From the terrible habit of always wanting more.
Everyone is crying, “Ruby, Ruby”;
But no one has tried to see.
Servant Kabı¯r has looked,
and climbed up beyond birth and death.
Song by Kabīr, XV c. Hindu Saint who hailed from a Muslim weaver caste
Recorded by Nancy M. Martin
I. Thousand-headed is the Cosmic Person, thousand-eyed, thousand-footed. He pervaded the earth on all sides, and stood
beyond it by ten fingers.
II. This is the nature of the Cosmic Person—he is all that had been and all that is to be. He is the lord of eternal life, and
grows by virtue of [ritual] food.
III. Such is his greatness, and yet he is more than even this. One-quarter of him is separated into all beings; three-quarters
of him remain in heaven.
IV. Three-quarters of his essence went upward, while one-quarter remained here. From this [smaller portion] he spread in
all directions, manifesting as that which eats and as that which does not eat.
V. From him, the shining one (viraja) was born; and from the shining one, he himself also comes. When he was born, he
extended beyond the earth, behind it as well as in front of it.
VI. When the gods performed a sacrifice by offering the Cosmic Person himself, spring was used as clarified butter, summer
the firewood, autumn the libation.
VII. It was the Cosmic Person, born in the beginning, sacrificed upon the sacred grass. By using him, the gods engaged in
sacrifice, as did the perfected beings and the sages of old.
VIII. From that sacrifice, once completed, the offered butter was brought together. It created the beasts of the air, and
those of the forests and the villages.
IX. From that sacrifice, completely offered, the mantras [Rig Veda] and the songs [Sama Veda] were born. The associated
meters were born from it as well. The sacrificial formulae [Yajur Veda] were born from it too.
X. From it came the horses as well as all that have sharp teeth in both jaws. The cows were born from it, too, as were goats
XI. When they divided the Cosmic Person, in how many portions did they do so? By what words did they refer to his
mouth? his arms? his thighs? his feet?
XII. His mouth was the Brahmin [priest], his arms were the Rajanaya [Kshatriya, warrior], his thighs the Vaishya [merchant];
his feet the Shudra [worker].
XIII. The moon was born from his mind; from his eye, the sun; from his mouth, both Indra and Agni; from his breath, Vayu
XIV. From his navel arose the air; from his head the heaven came into being; from his feet, the earth; the [four] directions
sprang from his ear. Thus, they built the worlds.
XV. Seven were his altar sticks, twenty-one pieces of kindling, and then the gods, performing the sacrifice, bound the
Cosmic Person himself.
XVI. The gods sacrificed with the sacrifice to the sacrifice. These were the first holy rites. These powers reached the
The Rig Veda, 10.90
1By the supremely profound words, on the discrimination of Self, that have been spoken by Thee out of compassion towards me,
this my delusion is gone. 2Of Thee, O lotus-eyed, I have heard at length, of the origin and dissolution of beings, as also Thy
inexhaustible greatness. 3So it is, O Lord Supreme! as Thou hast declared Thyself. (Still) I desire to see Thy Ishvara-Form, O Purusha
Supreme. 4If, O Lord, Thou thinkest me capable of seeing it, then, O Lord of Yogis, show me Thy immutable Self.
The Blessed Lord said:
5Behold, O son of Prithâ, by hundreds and thousands, My different forms celestial, of various colours and shapes. 6Behold the
Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the twin Ashvins, and the Maruts; behold, O descendant of Bharata, many wonders never seen
before. 7See now, O Gudâkesha, in this My body, the whole universe centred in one—including the moving and the unmoving—and
all else that thou desirest to see. 8But thou canst not see Me with these eyes of thine; I give thee supersensuous sight; behold My
Yoga Power Supreme.
9Having thus spoken, O King, Hari, the Great Lord of Yoga, showed unto the son of Prithâ, His Supreme Ishvara-Form—10With
numerous mouths and eyes, with numerous wondrous sights, with numerous celestial ornaments, with numerous celestial weapons
uplifted; 11Wearing celestial garlands and apparel, anointed with celestial-scented unguents, the All-wonderful, Resplendent,
Boundless and All-formed. 12If the splendour of a thousand suns were to rise up at once in the sky, that would be like the splendour
of that Mighty Being. 13There in the body of the Kami of gods, the son of Pându then saw the whole universe resting in one, with its
manifold divisions. 14Then Dhananjaya, filled with wonder, with his hair standing on end, bending down his head to the Deva in
adoration, spoke with joined palms.
15I see all the Devas, O Deva, in Thy body, and hosts of all grades of beings; Brahma, the Lord, seated on the lotus, and all the Rishis
and celestial serpents. 16I see Thee of boundless form on every side with manifold arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes; neither the
end nor the middle, nor also the beginning of Thee do I see, O Lord of the universe, O Universal Form. 17I see Thee with diadem,
club, and discus; a mass of radiance shining everywhere, very hard to look at, all around blazing like burning fire and sun, and
immeasurable. 18Thou art the Imperishable, the Supreme Being, the one thing to be known. Thou art the great Refuge of this
universe. Thou art the undying Guardian of the Eternal Dharma, Thou art the Ancient, Purusha, I ween. 19I see Thee without
beginning, middle or end, infinite in power, of manifold arms; the sun and the moon Thine eyes, the burning fire Thy mouth; heating
the whole universe with Thy radiance. 20The space betwixt heaven and earth and all the quarters are filled by Thee alone; having
seen this, Thy marvellous and awful Form, the three worlds are trembling with fear, O Great-souled One. 21Verily, into Thee enter
these hosts of Devas; some extol Thee in fear with joined palms; “May it be well!” thus saying, bands of great Rishis and Siddhas
praise Thee with splendid hymns. 22The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sâdhyas, Vishva-Devas, the two Ashvins, Maruts, Ushmapâs, and
hosts of Gandharvas, Yakshas, Asuras, and Siddhas—allthese are looking at Thee, all quite astounded. 23Having seen Thy
immeasurable Form—with many mouths and eyes, O mighty-armed, with many arms, thighs and feet, with many stomachs, and
fearful with many tusks—the worlds are terrified, and so am I. 24On seeing Thee touching the sky, shining in many a colour, with
mouths wide open, with large fiery eyes, I am terrified at heart, and find no courage nor peace, O Vishnu. 25Having seen Thy mouths,
fearful with tusks, (blazing) like Pralaya-fires, I know not the four quarters, nor do I find peace; have mercy, O Lord of the Devas, O
Abode of the universe. 26All these sons of Dhritarâshtra, with hosts of monarchs, Bhishma, Drona, and Sutaputra, with the warrior
chiefs of ours, enter precipitately into Thy mouth, terrible with tusks and fearful to behold. 27Some are found sticking in the
interstices of Thy teeth, with their heads crushed to powder. 28Verily, as the many torrents of rivers flow towards the ocean, so do
these heroes in the world of men enter Thy fiercely flaming mouths.29As moths precipitately rush into a blazing fire only to perish,
even so do these creatures also precipitately rush into Thy mouths only to perish. 30Swallowing all the worlds on every side with Thy
flaming mouths, Thou are licking Thy lips. Thy fierce rays, filling the whole world with radiance, are burning, O Vishnu! 31Tell me who
Thou art, fierce in form. Salutation to Thee, O Deva Supreme; have mercy. I desire to know Thee, O Primeval One. I know not indeed
The Blessed Lord said:
32I am the mighty world-destroying Time, here made manifest for the purpose of infolding the world. Even without thee, none of the
warriors arrayed in the hostile armies shall live. 33Therefore do thou arise and acquire fame. Conquer the enemies, and enjoy the
unrivalled dominion. Verily by Myself have they been already slain; be thou merely an apparent cause, O Savyasâchin (Arjuna).
34Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna, as well as other brave warriors—these already killed by Me, do thou kill. Be not distressed with
fear; fight, and thou shalt conquer thy enemies in battle.
35Having, heard that speech of Keshava, the diademed one (Arjuna), with joined palms, trembling, prostrated himself, and again
addressed Krishna in a choked voice, bowing down, overwhelmed with fear.
36It is meet, O Hrishikesha, that the world is delighted and rejoices in Thy praise, that Râkshasas fly in fear to all quarters and all the
hosts of Siddhas bow down to Thee in adoration. 37And why should they not, O Great-souled One, bow to Thee, greater than, and
the Primal Cause of even Brahmâ, O Infinite Being, O Lord of the Devas, O Abode of the universe? Thou art the Imperishable, the
Being and the non-Being, (as well as) That which is Beyond (them). 38Thou art the Primal Deva, the Ancient Purusha; Thou art the
Supreme Refuge of this universe, Thou art the Knower, and the One Thing to be known; Thou art the Supreme Goal. By Thee is the
universe pervaded, O Boundless Form. 39Thou art Vâyu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the Moon, Prajâpati, and the Great-Grandfather.
Salutation, salutation to Thee, a thousand times, and again and again salutation, salutation to Thee! 40Salutation to Thee before and
behind, salutation to Thee on every side, O All! Thou, infinite in power and infinite in prowess, pervadest all; wherefore Thou art All.
41Whatever I have presumptuously said from carelessness or love, addressing Thee as, “O Krishna, O Yâdava, O friend,” regarding
Thee merely as a friend, unconscious of this Thy greatness—42in whatever way I may have been disrespectful to Thee in fun, while
walking, reposing, sitting, or at meals, when alone (with Thee), O Achyuta, or in company—I implore Thee, Immeasurable One, to
forgive all this. 43Thou art the Father of the world, moving and unmoving; the object of its worship; greater than the great. None
there exists who is equal to Thee in the three worlds; who then can excel Thee, O, Thou of power incomparable? 44So prostrating my
body in adoration, I crave Thy forgiveness, Lord adorable! As a father forgiveth his son, friend a dear friend, a beloved one his love,
even so shouldst Thou forgive me, O Deva. 45Overjoyed am I to have seen what I saw never before; yet my mind is distracted with
terror. Show me, O Deva, only that Form of Thine. Have mercy, O Lord of Devas, O Abode of the universe. 46Diademed, bearing a
mace and a discus, Thee I desire to see as before. Assume that same four-armed Form, O Thou of thousand arms, of universal Form.
The Blessed Lord said:
47Graciously have I shown to thee, O Arjuna, this Form supreme, by My own Yoga power, this resplendent, primeval, infinite,
universal Form of Mine, which hath not been seen before by anyone else. 48Neither by the study of the Veda and Yajna, nor by gifts,
nor by rituals, nor by severe austerities, am I in such Form seen, in the world of men, by any other than thee, O great hero of the
Kurus. 49Be not afraid nor bewildered, having beheld this Form of Mine, so terrific. With thy fears dispelled and with gladdened
heart, now see again this (former) form of Mine.
50So Vâsudeva, having thus spoken to Arjuna, showed again His own Form and the Great-souled One, assuming His gentle Form,
pacified him who was terrified.
51Having seen this Thy gentle human Form, O Janârdana, my thoughts are now composed and I am restored to my nature.
The Blessed Lord said:
52Very hard indeed it is to see this Form of Mine which thou hast seen. Even the Devas ever long to behold this Form. 53Neither by
the Vedas, nor by austerity, nor by gifts, nor by sacrifice can I be seen as thou hast seen Me. 54But by the single-minded devotion I
may in this Form, be known, O Arjuna, and seen in reality, and also entered into, O scorcher of foes. 55He who does work for Me
alone and has Me for his goal, is devoted to Me, is freed from attachment, and bears enmity towards no creature—he entereth into
Me, O Pândava.
The Mahabarata, Book VI, Chapter XI
Title: Blackwell’s Companion to
Author: Gavin Flood;
Translator: Nancy M. Martin;
The Rig Veda, 10.90
Title: Essential Hinduism;
Translator: Steven J. Rosen;
The Mahabarata, Book VI, Chapter X
Translator: Swami Swarupananda;
Publisher: Advaita Ashrama;
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
The Blessed One then addressed the monks, saying, ‘‘Monks.’’
‘‘Yes, lord,’’ the monks responded.
The Blessed One said, ‘‘I will teach and interpret for you the Noble Eightfold Path. Listen and pay attention as I speak.’’
‘‘We will do as you say, lord,’’ the monks replied.
The Blessed One said, ‘‘What, monks, is the Noble Eightfold Path? Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
‘‘What is right view? It is knowledge with regard to suffering, knowledge with regard to the origination of suffering, knowledge with
regard to the stopping of suffering, knowledge with regard to the way of practice leading to the stopping of suffering.
‘‘What is right resolve? It is being resolved to practice renunciation, to be free from ill will, to be harmless.
‘‘What is right speech? It is refraining from lying, refraining from divisive speech, refraining from abusive speech, and refraining from
‘‘What is right action? It is not taking life, not stealing, and being chaste.
‘‘What is right livelihood? This is when a disciple of the noble ones, having abandoned a dishonest livelihood, sustains his life with
‘‘What is right effort? This is when a monk desires, endeavors, persists, upholds, and exerts his intent so that evil, unhelpful qualities
do not arise [in him]. He abandons unhelpful qualities that have arisen…[He] brings about helpful qualities that have not yet
arisen…[He brings about] helpful qualities that have arisen.
‘‘What is right mindfulness? This is when a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself—he is fervent, aware, and mindful—
putting away the greed and distress of the world. He remains focused on feelings in and of themselves—he is fervent, aware, and
mindful—putting away the greed and distress of the world. He remains focused on the mind in and of itself—he is fervent, aware,
and mindful—putting away the greed and distress of the world. He remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves—he is
fervent, aware, and mindful—putting away the greed and distress of the world.
‘‘What is right concentration? This is when a monk—quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities—
enters and remains in the first stage of concentration: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought
and evaluation. With the stilling of his directed thought and evaluation, he enters and remains in the second stage of concentration:
rapture and pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation. This brings internal
assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains calm, mindful and alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters and
remains in the third stage of concentration: calm and mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding. With the abandoning of pleasure and
pain, as with the earlier disappearance of rapture and distress, he enters and remains in the fourth stage of concentration: pure
calmness and mindfulness, having neither pleasure nor pain.
This is what the Blessed One said.
Dhammacakkapparattana Sutta, 9–20
There is an old story about a man who came to see the Buddha because he had heard that the Buddha was a great teacher.
Like all of us, he had some problems in his life, and he thought the Buddha might be able to help him straighten them out.
He told the Buddha that he was a farmer. “I like farming,“ he said, “but sometimes it doesn’t rain enough, and my crops fail.
Last year we nearly starved. And sometimes it rains too much, so my yields aren’t what I’d like them to be.”
The Buddha patiently listened to the man.
“I’m married, too,” said the man. “She’s a good wife…I love her, in fact. But sometimes she nags me too much. And sometimes
I get tired of her. ”
The Buddha listened quietly.
“I have kids,” said the man. “Good kids, too…but sometimes they don’t show me enough respect. And sometimes…”
The man went on like this, laying out all his difficulties and worries. Finally he wound down and waited for the Buddha to say
the words that would put everything right for him.
Instead the Buddha said, “I can’t help you.”
“What do you mean?” said the astonished man.
“Everybody’s got problems,” said the Buddha. “In fact, we’ve all got eighty-three problems, each one of us. Eighty-three
problems, and there’s nothing you can do about it. If you work really hard on one of them, maybe you can fix it. But if you do,
another one will pop right into its place. For example, you’re going to lose your loved ones eventually. And you’re going to die some
day. Now there’s a problem, and there’s nothing you, or I, or anyone else can do about it.”
The man became furious. “I thought you were a great teacher!” he shouted. “I thought you could help me! What good is your
The Buddha said, “Well, maybe it will help you with the eighty-fourth problem.”
“The eighty-fourth problem?” said the man. “What’s the eighty-fourth problem?”
Said the Buddha, “You want to not have any problems.”
A Buddhist Tale
If resentment arises towards any person, then one should cultivate:
In this way he may get rid of resentment that has arisen towards any person.
Or one should cultivate lack of asati (awareness) of him and not give amanasikara (attention) to
that person. In this way, he may get rid of resentment that has arisen towards any person.
Or one should fix in one’s mind the fact of his ownership of kamma:
‘This venerable sir is the owner of his deeds, the heir to his deeds: his deeds are his progenitor,
his kinsmen and his refuge. Whatever he does, good or bad, he will be the heir of that.’
In this way, he may get rid of resentment that has arisen towards any person.
By these five ways of getting rid of resentment,
a monk can get rid of all resentment that arises within him.
Ajguttaranikaya, III: 185
The Eightfold Path
Dhammacakkapparattana Sutta, 9–20
Title: Buddhist Suttas;
Translator: Thomas W. R. Davids;
Publisher: Oxford Univ …
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