As a continuation of our course project due in Unit VIII (a proposal for an industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility), complete the next (fourth) section (chemical treatment) of your proposal by following the instructions carefully, and then submit your continued draft of your proposal into Blackboard for grading.Instructions:Closely read the Required Reading assignment from Bahadori (2014) and the Unit Lesson within the Study Guide.Open your proposal draft from Unit II and make any improvements to your draft using your professor’s feedback from the Unit II project assignment.Open the Unit III Study Guide, read the unit lesson, and then work with the embedded interactive model to decide what chemical treatment equipment to include in your treatment process design.Continue from your Unit II Project and make your fourth level one heading titled “Chemical Treatment.” Describe the chemical treatment equipment that you engineered into your treatment process. Be sure and describe the relevance and anticipated reduction of related analytical concentrations within your industrial and hazardous waste treatment system as they correspond with each technology that you selected.You are required to describe the equipment selection in at least 200 words (minimum).
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As a continuation of our course project due in Unit VIII (a proposal for an industrial and hazardous waste
treatment facility), complete the next (fourth) section (chemical treatment) of your proposal by
following the instructions carefully, and then submit your continued draft of your proposal into
Blackboard for grading.
1. Closely read the Required Reading assignment from Bahadori (2014) and the Unit Lesson within
the Study Guide.
2. Open your proposal draft from Unit II and make any improvements to your draft using your
professor’s feedback from the Unit II project assignment.
3. Open the Unit III Study Guide, read the unit lesson, and then work with the embedded
interactive model to decide what chemical treatment equipment to include in your treatment
4. Continue from your Unit II Project and make your fourth level one heading titled “Chemical
Treatment.” Describe the chemical treatment equipment that you engineered into your
treatment process. Be sure and describe the relevance and anticipated reduction of related
analytical concentrations within your industrial and hazardous waste treatment system as they
correspond with each technology that you selected.
You are required to describe the equipment selection in at least 200 words (minimum).
Reading Assignment Chapter 1: Wastewater Treatment Unit Lesson As you will notice, this class is
designated as MEE (Masters of Environmental Engineering). As scholar practitioners of environmental
management, it is imperative that we learn to apply engineering principles to keep the environment and
other people as safe as possible while operating within work systems across a wide cross-section of
industry settings. This is the very basis for studying environmental engineering.
Environmental managers typically observe and report incidents while implementing administrative
programs to hopefully reduce the volume of incidents experienced in a given industry setting.
Environmental engineers do something different. First, environmental engineers study the affected
work systems to identify independent variables causally related to incidents. Second, environmental
engineers use statistical data analysis to forecast future incidents. Finally, environmental engineers work
to engineer out the risks from the work system. All of this is done well before introducing the
environment and humans into the contemporary work system. This is the very work that we must do as
scholar-practitioners of environmental management. Consequently, we must learn to think and work as
This unit is going to help us focus on our objectives for this entire class as we learn to study industrial
and hazardous waste systems with the most effective technical design tools available to the
environmental engineering field. Let’s make the mental transition from an environmental manager to an
environmental engineer together as we begin!
First, in an effort to appreciate the need for properly managing these wastes, it is important for us to
assess the impact of industrial and hazardous waste on human populations.
Hickman (2003) explained that the United States only began understanding the impact of solid,
industrial, and hazardous waste on the human population after World War II (late 1950s). Before the
early 1970s, the larger part of waste management seemed to have been focused on the transportation
of the wastes, rather than the treatment and subsequent disposal of the wastes (Hickman, 2003). By the
time we reached the early 1980s, we had just begun to recognize the relationship between the industry
type standard industrial code (SIC) and the waste types (classifications) largely associated with each
industry. For example, we learned that roughly 70% of the hazardous waste nationwide was generated
by the chemical industry (SIC code 28), with approximately 20% belonging to the primary metals
industry (SIC code 33), and the remaining 10% belonging to the additional industry types (Haas &
Vamos, 1995). Still, one of the most informative realizations was that approximately 90% of the waste
was being generated by approximately 10% of the waste generators among industry types. As such, one
of the first classifications that is important for us to understand is the small UNIT I STUDY GUIDE
Industrial Hazardous Waste Attributes, Impacts, and Regulations MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous
Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title quantity generator that represents the 90% of the
industry generators producing approximately only 10% of the total waste (Haas & Vamos, 1995).
Second, given that we understand every process is likely to have an effluent waste stream (solid, liquid,
or gas), it is imperative that we as environmental engineers understand the waste aspect of a given
operation. This means we must learn the fundamental science (chemistry and physics) and engineering
principles involved in the operation. Interestingly, the majority of the chemistry involved in waste
treatment occurs within the wastewater matrices of the industrial effluents. Bahadori (2014) carefully
navigates us through this critical first lesson of wastewater chemistry within the context of a wastewater
treatment plant. It is critical that you take the time to carefully follow Bahadori (2014) through this
discussion as it will inform your thinking throughout the entire course.
Third, it is important that we be able classify wastes by understanding and recognizing the key
attributes of wastes that may be considered industrial wastes, solid wastes, or hazardous wastes. In
addition to Bahadori’s (2014) characterization and classification of wastewaters, we must also begin to
recognize the differences between solid wastes and hazardous wastes generated by industrial sources.
This is largely achieved by using applied chemistry to delineate the differences between solid wastes and
hazardous wastes. We first distinguish between inorganic wastes and organic wastes. Then, we further
segregate by type: (inorganics) acid wastes, alkaline wastes, and other inorganic wastes; (organics)
concentrated liquids, dilute aqueous solutions, organic solids, and organic gases/vapors. Everything else
not falling in either of these categories (such as biological wastes, explosives, strong oxidizers, and
strong reducers) is considered a special waste (Haas & Vamos, 1995).These chemical and physical
attributes are recognized only through chemical and physical laboratory testing with Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) approved test methods.
Finally, we must consider the relevant laws, standards, and best practices related to managing these
wastes. While there are local municipal and state laws governing specific aspects of waste management
and disposal (often termed local limits), the EPA ultimately governs the most contemporary and best
practices through several laws (e.g., Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation & Recovery
Act [RCRA]). Additionally, the EPA governs with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) (specifically 40 CFR
Part 261 for RCRA hazardous waste identification and 40 CFR Part 503 for sewage sludge) (Haas &
As we progress through this class, we are going to be designing a waste management system within the
context of a course project. This course project will be a proposed industrial and hazardous waste
treatment facility that we will individually engineer, complete with wastewater, solid, and gas treatment
and control technologies. As such, we will draw heavily upon each chapter of Bahadori’s (2014) textbook
as we engineer one aspect of the facility design proposal in each unit.
This may be your first opportunity to design as an environmental engineer. Take in everything that you
can in this class and think like a designing environmental engineer! This is what we are called to do as
scholar-practitioners of environmental management.
References Bahadori, A. (2014). Waste management in the chemical and petroleum industries. West
Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley. Haas, C., & Vamos, R. (1995). Hazardous and industrial waste treatment.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall. Hickman, H. L. (2003). American alchemy: The history of solid
waste management in the United States. Santa Barbara, CA: Forester Press. MEE 5801, Industrial and
Hazardous Waste Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Suggested Reading The suggested reading
will give you additional resources related to wastewater management planning. The article can be found
using the Academic Search Complete database in the CSU library. Hashemi, H., Pourzamani, H., &
Samani, B. R. (2014). Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the
industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts. Journal Of Environmental & Public Health,
UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Chemical Treatment of Industrial
and Hazardous Waste
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Assess the fundamental science and engineering principles applicable to the management and
treatment of solid and hazardous wastes.
1.1 Discuss the techniques of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation as they relate to an
engineered precipitation process for wastewater treatment.
1.2 Describe the decision making to either increase the pH or decrease the pH of the wastewater
treatment system in order to effectively precipitate heavy metals.
5. Evaluate operations and technologies related to industrial and hazardous wastes.
5.1 Discuss the aspects of a chemical flocculation process design that must be considered during
the engineering process.
5.2 Discuss the aspects of a secondary circular clarifier process design that must be
considered during the engineering process.
Chapter 3: Chemical Treatment
In this unit, we are going to learn about the technology available to us in Bahadori’s (2014) discussion on
chemical treatment. As such, we are going to continue with our industrial and hazardous waste treatment
system design by adding chemical treatment and disinfection processes into our system.
The chemical treatment and biological treatment of the waste influents are often considered to be two of the
most challenging aspects of the entire treatment system. This is due largely to the fact that chemistry and
biology are statistically reliable to an average of about 95%. This means that the other five percent of the time
the anticipated chemical and biological activity related to a reaction (chemical or enzymatic) may not work as
forecasted. In fact, this is why it is common for us as scholar-practitioners of environmental engineering to
conduct a chemical and biological hypothesis level of 95% (Trochim, 2001). We must remember that we are
actually testing in research and design (R&D) activities with a statistical confidence, attempting to manipulate
nature in order to effectively separate solids (metals and organic materials), gases (volatiles and semivolatiles), synthetic liquids (organic and halogenated solvents), and water (Texas Water Utilities Association
[TWUA], 1991). This is often very challenging. This is why we turn to technological solutions for many of these
Chemical treatment and biological treatment are causally related variables within the treatment system. In
fact, both the chemical and biological treatment processes have the ability to causally affect the other in
tandem (Haas & Vamos, 1995). Stated another way for clarity, the chemical treatment process often informs
the biological treatment process. Additionally, the biological treatment process can also inform the chemical
treatment process. For example, we may effectively reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) during
the chemical treatment process, but then experience still another BOD change in the process with the
interruption of aerobic organisms’ enzymatic activities, such as the catalase enzyme described by Bahadori
(2014). Consequently, it is very important for us as engineers to closely consider the chemical and biological
treatment processes as dynamic processes, rather than static processes inherent during physical treatment
(such as oil removal). Let’s start with the chemical treatment process.
MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management
Bahadori (2014) describes the chemical treatment process in terms of subsystems
coagulation, chemical oxidation and reduction). However, he does not order these
Titlesubsystems in a way that
is necessarily easy for us to understand in terms of industrial and hazardous waste treatment. Instead, let’s
consider the following subsystems in this specific order of treatment techniques, with the correlating principles
(Haas & Vamos, 1995; TWUA, 1991) tied to each subsystem within chemical treatment (Bahadori, 2014):
1. Neutralization (pp. 82-83, 93)
a. pH (acid/alkaline) and ion exchange
b. acid waste neutralization (NaOH, NaOCl)
c. alkaline waste neutralization (H2SO4, HNO3)
2. Chemical oxidation and reduction (pp. 82-84)
a. ion exchange (mineral softener unit, ion exchange column)
b. cyanide reduction (alkaline chlorination, O3, or H2O2 treatment)
c. activated carbon adsorption (liquid phase granular absorber)
d. air and steam stripping (stripping column or distillation tower)
3. Precipitation (pp. 81-82, 87-94)
a. coagulation (Ca(OH)2, Al2(SO4)3, FeCl3, in tandem with polyelectrolytes)
b. flocculation (cationic polyacrylamide)
c. secondary hydroxide precipitation (NaOH, Ca(OH)2)
4. Solidification and stabilization (pp. 84, 90-92)
a. clarifying (secondary clarifier tank)
b. sludge thickening (cationic polymers)
c. sludge dewatering (filter or belt press)
5. Disinfection (pp. 94-98)
a. chemical agent disinfection (chlorination)
b. mechanical agent disinfection (filtration)
c. biological agent disinfection (activated sludge and Unit IV techniques)
In order to facilitate the chemical reactions associated with neutralizing and reduction/oxidation (redox
reactions) activities, it is common to use an inverted cone shaped vessel or Imhoff tank, named after Dr. Karl
Imhoff (TWUA, 1991) in order to facilitate greater solids collections into the hopper-shaped bottom while using
the gravimetric techniques of flocculating solids (sedimentation) from the liquid phased waste solution
(Haas & Vamos, 1995).
It is often in the Imhoff tank that one of the most critical aspects of the entire chemical treatment process can
occur. This is the precipitation of heavy metals from the solution. Through the manipulation of the wastewater
pH (neutralizing the pH from very low or very high values), the neutralization process actually initiates the
redox reaction process. In turn, the redox reactions initiate the precipitation process and subsequently the
solidification process. The heterogeneous equilibria of the solution becomes very important in this process,
given that the equilibrium constant could be defined as the following (Haas & Vamos, 1995):
This means that we could actually then define the solubility of a heavy metal by estimating the activity of a
hydroxide ion (OH), and subsequently determine the required equilibrium pH of the wastewater at which a
select metal would precipitate (Haas & Vamos, 1995). It is by this method that we realize most heavy metals
tend to precipitate within a higher pH wastewater matrix (TWUA, 1991).
MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management
Consequently, one effective way to tie together all of these subsystems into a UNIT
process could be the following order of in-line equipment, following the physical
oil removal equipment:
Oil-water separator (Unit 2)
Imhoff tank (neutralization/precipitation)
ion exchange column (oxidation/reduction)
filter press (solidification)
Now, let’s consider our second phase of equipment needs (chemical treatment) for our proposed project
design as we use our interactive model again.
1. Click here to access the interactive design model.
2. Closely review the influent laboratory report (lift station) against the effluent laboratory report (pop up
report). Remember that the goal is to design our system so that the final effluent concentrations meet
the established local limits for the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).
3. Continue to use this model in your design work for your course project (proposed industrial and
hazardous waste treatment facility) again in this unit.
Have fun designing your chemical treatment process within your industrial and hazardous waste treatment
Bahadori, A. (2014). Waste management in the chemical and petroleum industries. West Sussex, United
Haas, C., & Vamos, R. (1995). Hazardous and industrial waste treatment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall.
Texas Water Utilities Association. (1991). Manual of wastewater treatment. (6th ed.). Austin, TX: Author.
Trochim, W. M. K. (2001). The research methods knowledge base (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Atomic
The suggested reading will give you additional resources related to the content for this unit. The article is an
open source publication and can be found at the URL provided below.
Brostow, W., Hagg Lobland, H., Pal., S., & Singh, R. (2009). Polymeric flocculants for wastewater and
industrial effluent treatment. Journal of Materials Education 31(3-4), 157-166. Retrieved from
MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management
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