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Article CritiqueUsing the article selected for the above proposal, students will provide a critical summaryofthe articleand using thefollowing headings: introduction, article summary, main OB theories raised, parallelsto organizational behaviour conceptsraised in class (how did the article expand your understanding?),conclusion, references.Your assignment should be no longer than 3 pages, not including the citations (double spaced, Times New Roman font, size 12 font and use APA reference format).For references,students may use the course text book andotherscholarly,academic, peer-reviewedjournalarticles.
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Chapter 9
Leadership
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 1
What Is Leadership?
• The influence that particular individuals exert
on the goal achievement of others in an
organizational context.
• Effective leadership exerts influence in a way
that achieves organizational goals by enhancing
the productivity, innovation, satisfaction, and
commitment of the workforce.
• Leadership is about motivating people and
gaining their commitment.
• Leadership has a strong effect on an
organization’s strategy, success, and very
survival.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 2
Strategic Leadership
• Leadership that involves the ability to
anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think
strategically, and work with others to initiate
changes that will create a viable future for the
organization.
• Strategic leaders are open and honest in their
interactions with the organization’s
stakeholders, and they focus on the future.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 3
Formal vs. Informal
Formal
Informal
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
• Individuals with titles
• Expected to influence
others
• Have specific authority
• No formal authority
• Relies on being well liked
• Highly skilled at
influencing others
Chapter 9 / Slide 4
Limitations of the Traits to
predict leadership effectiveness
Traits alone
are not
sufficient for
successful
leadership.
Behaviours
have a greater
impact on
leadership
effectiveness.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 5
The Behaviour of Leaders
Consideration
Initiating
Structure
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
• Being approachable, showing
personal concern and respect
• Friendly, egalitarian,
appreciative, supportive,
protective of group welfare
• Focus on group goal attainment
• Clearly defining roles and
responsibilities, stresses
standards, schedules and
assignments
Chapter 9 / Slide 6
Situational Theories of
Leadership
• The basic premise of situational theories of
leadership is that the effectiveness of a
leadership style is contingent on the setting.
• The setting includes the characteristics of the
employees, the nature of the task they are
performing, and characteristics of the
organization.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 7
Situational Theories of
Leadership (continued)
• Two situational theories of leadership that are
among the best known and most studied:
– Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
– House’s Path-Goal Theory
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 8
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
• The association between leadership orientation
and group effectiveness is contingent on
(depends on) the extent to which the situation
is favourable for exerting influence.
• Some situations are more favourable than
others, and these situations require different
orientations on the part of the leader. The
leader has to adjust.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 9
House’s Path-Goal Theory
• The most important activities of leaders are
those that clarify the paths to various goals of
interest to employees (who may have different
needs).
• The effective leader forms a connection
between employee goals and organizational
goals.
• This theory includes participatory leadership
behaviour.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 10
What is Participative Leadership?
• Participative leadership means involving
employees in making work-related decisions.
• Leaders can vary in the extent to which they
involve employees in decision making.
• Minimally, participation involves obtaining
employee opinions before making a decision.
• Maximally, it allows employees to make their
own decisions within agreed-on limits.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 11
Advantages and Disadvantages
• What are the potential advantages of
participation as a leadership technique?
– Motivation (can increase intrinsic motivation)
– Quality (improve decision quality)
– Acceptance (improves perception of fairness)
• Negative aspects of participation leadership
may include: increased time and energy, loss of
centralized power or influence, lack of
necessary knowledge or external constraints
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 12
Participative Leadership:
Research Evidence
• There is substantial evidence that employees
who have the opportunity to participate in
work-related decisions report more job
satisfaction, higher task performance, and
organizational citizenship behaviour toward the
organization than those who do not.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 13
Activity #1
Discussion Questions
1. Describe a situation that would be ideal for
having employees participate in a work-related
decision. What are the advantages?
2. Describe a situation where it would be unwise
to use employee participation as a leadership
strategy. Why is this so?
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 14
Transactional vs.
Transformational Leadership
• Transactional Leadership is leadership that is
based on a straightforward exchange
relationship between a leader and followers.
• Transformational leadership is leadership that
provides followers with a new vision that instills
true commitment.
– Transformational leaders change the beliefs
and attitudes of followers to correspond with
a new vision and motivates them to achieve
performance beyond expectations.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 15
Behaviours of Transformational
Leadership (four dimensions)
Intellectual
Stimulation
Individual
Consideration
Inspirational
Motivation
• Employees
are
stimulated to
think about
problems,
contribute to
new vision.
• Leader
challenges
assumptions
• Employees
are treated
as distinct
individuals
• Emphasis on
the one-onone personal
development
• Leader
inspires with
vision
• Leader
stimulates
enthusiasm
and
challenges
with high
standards
Charisma
• Leader
commands
strong loyalty
and enjoys
influence
• Emotional
aspect
Current research shows that transformational leadership
approaches are the most consistent predictor of effective
leadership.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 16
New and Emerging Theories of
Leadership
• Leadership research has begun to focus on the
broader context of the leadership process.
• This has led to the emergence of new forms of
leadership behaviours and theories:
– Empowering leadership
– Ethical leadership
– Authentic leadership
– Servant leadership
– Feminist leadership
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 17
Empowering Leadership
• Empowering leadership involves implementing
conditions that enable power to be shared with
employees.
– provide participation and autonomy in
decision making.
– provide psychological empowerment that
consists of feelings of meaning, competence,
self-determination, and impact.
– provides employees with a greater feeling of
control over their work and a sense that they
can make a difference.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 18
Ethical Leadership
• Ethical leadership involves the demonstration
of normatively appropriate conduct through
personal actions and interpersonal
relationships, and the promotion of such
conduct to followers through two-way
communication, reinforcement, and decisionmaking. About “doing the right thing”.
– model what is deemed to be normatively
appropriate behaviour
– make ethics salient in the workplace.
– reward ethical behaviour, punish unethical
behaviour
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 19
Authentic Leadership
• Authentic leadership is a positive form of
leadership that involves being true to oneself.
– act upon their true values, beliefs, and
strengths, and they help others do the same.
– conduct and behaviour is guided by their
internal values.
• Consists of four related behaviours:
– Self-awareness
– Relational transparency
– Balanced processing
– Internalized moral perspective
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 20
Servant Leadership
• Servant leadership is a form of leadership that
involves going beyond one’s own self-interests
and having a genuine concern to serve others
and a motivation to lead.
• The focus is a concern for the needs of
followers and their growth and development.
• A servant leader is somebody who wants to
serve first and lead second.
• Consists of six characteristics: empowering and
developing others, humility, authenticity,
interpersonal acceptance, providing direction
and stewardship
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 21
Feminist Leadership
• Recognizes power-laden demographics which
influence and are embodied in lived experience
• A model for ethical, empowered engagement
within groups
• A process which is collaborative, relational with
constant awareness of gender and power
• A holistic (bio-psycho-social-spiritual) method of
related to each other
• Focused on the motivational and emotional
aspects of guidance
• Involving shared power
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 22
Four Global Leadership Qualities
• Many leader attributes such as being honest,
decisive, motivational, and dynamic are
universally desirable.
• Unbridled inquisitiveness: Global leaders must
be able to function cross-culturally.
• Personal character: involves emotional
connection to people from different cultures.
• Duality: must be able to manage uncertainty
and balance global and local tensions.
• Savvy: must be knowledgeable about conditions
they faced in different countries
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 23
What Style of Leadership is Best?
• An effective leader needs to be capable of
using different styles of leadership.
• The key issue is knowing what style of
leadership is required in each situation that a
leader encounters.
• Key situational variables include the nature of
the task, employee characteristics,
characteristics of the organization, etc.
• Leadership will be effective when the style is
matched to the situation.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 24
Activity #2
Simon Sinek explores how leaders
can inspire cooperation, trust and
change. He’s the author of the classic
“Start With Why”; his latest book is
“Leaders Eat Last.”
https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_
leaders_inspire_action?utm_campaign=tedspread&u
tm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare
Watch the video and discuss as a class
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 9 / Slide 25
Chapter 10
Communication
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 1
What is Communication?
• The process by which information is exchanged
between a sender and a receiver.
• Interpersonal communication involves the
exchange of information between people.
• Effective communication occurs when the right
people receive the right information in a timely
manner.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 2
A Model of the Communication
Process
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 3
Communication by Strict Chain of
Command
• The chain of command refers to the lines of
authority and formal reporting relationships in an
organization. Supports three types of
communication:
Downward
Upward
Horizontal
Flows from
the top
Flows from
the bottom
Between
units
Delegation
from
supervisor
Improvement
to process
Coordination
of tasks
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 4
Deficiencies in the Chain of
Command
• The formal chain of command is sometimes an
ineffective path. Things to consider:
Informal
communication
Filtering
Slowness
Helps with
efficiency
Can occur in
any direction
Cross
functional
teams can
short circuit
Doesn’t
always
benefit the
organization
Can lead to
gaps in detail
Slowness is
challenging
for customers
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 5
Voice and Silence
• Voice refers to the constructive expression of
disagreement or concern about work unit or
organizational practices.
• Voice involves “speaking up” and it can be
contrasted with silence which means
withholding relevant information.
• It can be considered a form of organizational
citizenship behaviour.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 6
Voice and Silence
• More satisfied employees who identify more
strongly with their work unit or organization are
most likely to speak up as are those who are
conscientious and extraverted.
• Direct supervisors and higher level managers
play a critical role in creating a climate in
which constructive dissent can emerge.
• A positive climate for voice can contribute to
an atmosphere of psychological safety.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 7
Voice and Silence
• Psychological safety refers to a shared belief
that it is safe to take social risks.
• Self-censorship will result in a climate of
silence.
• Another factor that can contribute to silence
and works against voice is the mum effect.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 8
The Mum Effect
• The mum effect refers to the tendency to avoid
communicating unfavourable news to others.
• It is more likely when the sender is responsible
for the bad news.
• The mum effect applies to both subordinates
and managers.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 9
Characteristics of the Grapevine
• The grapevine is an organization’s informal
communication network.
• The grapevine cuts across formal lines of
communication.
• Organizations often have several grapevine
systems.
• It can transmit information relevant to the
performance of the organization as well as
personal gossip. Tends to be fairly accurate.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 10
Who Participates in the
Grapevine and Why?
• Personality characteristics play a role in
grapevine participation (e.g., extraverts).
• It can be a timely and inexpensive source of
information.
• It can provide an alternative source of power
and influence available to all.
• The exchange of delicate information builds a
bond of trust between senders and receivers.
• It provides social and intellectual stimulation.
Question: what are the pros and cons?
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 11
Rumours
• A rumour is an unverified belief that is in
general circulation.
• Rumours spread fastest and farthest when:
– The information is especially ambiguous.
– The content of the rumour is important to
those involved.
– The rumour seems credible.
– The recipient is anxious.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 12
Activity
Discussion Question (groups 4-6)
List 3 reasons why employees might respond with
silence rather than voice to an organizational
problem. Then for each, explain how the
organization could act to encourage voice.
Don’t pick obvious examples – help your peers
understand the potential scope of issues.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 13
The Verbal Language of Work
• In many jobs, occupations, and organizations
we see the development of jargon.
• Jargon refers to the specialized language used
by job holders or members.
• Jargon can be an efficient means of
communicating with peers and provides
• Jargon can be a barrier to clear communication
• Jargon can be intimidating and confusing to
new organizational members.
Question: has anyone struggled to get used to
new jargon? Can you share an example?
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 14
The Non-verbal Language of Work
• Non-verbal communication refers to the
transmission of messages by some medium
other than speech or writing such as body
language.
• Major forms of non-verbal communication
include:
– Body language
– Props, artifacts, and costumes (form or dress
e.g. uniform or dress code).
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 15
Body Language
• Body language is non-verbal communication
that occurs by means of the sender’s bodily
motions and facial expressions or the sender’s
physical location in relation to the receiver.
• Two important messages sent via body
language:
– The extent to which the sender likes and is
interested in the receiver.
– The sender’s views concerning the relative
status of the sender and the receiver.
– Relaxation can denote status over another
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 16
Props, Artifacts, and Costumes
• Non-verbal communication can also occur
through the use of various objects such as
props, artifacts, and costumes.
• Consider how the following can communicate
information about an individual: office décor,
arrangements, clothing.
• The manner in which people decorate and
arrange their offices conveys non-verbal
information about the occupant.
Example: Paramount – Meeting with the VP
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 17
Does Clothing Communicate?
• The clothing organizational members wear
sends signals about their competence,
seriousness, and promotability.
• Research indicates that clothing does
communicate.
• It communicates partly because it can enhance
the wearer’s self-esteem and self-confidence.
Question: What do uniforms communicate e.g.
retail vs. military vs. business suit?
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 18
Gender Differences in
Communication
• Gender differences in communication styles
influence the way that men and women are
perceived and treated in the workplace.
• We have long associated masculinity with
leadership
• Differences tend not to favour women
Example: Transformational Leadership
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 19
Cross-Cultural Communication
• Many failures in business and management
across cultures are due to ineffective
communication.
• Some important dimensions of cross-cultural
communication include:
– Language differences
– Non-verbal communication
– Etiquette and politeness
– Social conventions
– Cultural context
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 20
Cross Cultural Communication
The same language
is no guarantee of
perfect
communication
Non-verbal
communication
does not translate
(except facial
expressions)
Cultures differ in
how etiquette and
politeness are
expressed
Social conventions
vary across culture
(behaviours,
approaches and
reactions)
Cultural context is
important for
decoding messages
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 21
The message is
strongly
influenced by
the context
e.g. more
symbolic
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
The message is
more literal
and meaning
can be drawn
directly from
the message
Low Cultural Context
High Cultural Context
High Cultural Context and Low
Cultural Context
Chapter 10/ Slide 22
Computer-Mediated
Communication
• Information richness refers to the potential
information-carrying capacity (efficacy) of a
communication medium.
• Communication media can be ranked in terms
of information richness.
• Face-to-face transmission of information is very
high in richness (visual and audio cues).
• A telephone conversation is also fairly rich but
limited to the audio channel (audio cues only).
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Canada Inc.
Chapter 10/ Slide 23
Computer-Mediated
Communication
• Two important
dimensions of
information richness:
– The degree to
which information
is synchronous
between senders
and receivers.
– The extent to
which both parties
can receive nonverbal cues.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Cana …
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