AMH 2020 – American History II – Summer 2019Second Paper AssignmentFor this assignment, you will


AMH 2020 – American History II – Summer 2019Second Paper AssignmentFor this assignment, you will write a 2-to-4-page paper in response to the following prompt using the supporting documents. You are required to cite 3 of the primary sources that you have read for this section. This paper is due at 11:59 PM on Sunday, July 21st. Your paper should be uploaded to Canvas. It will be checked for plagiarism using Turn-It-In.Prompt: In this section, we have discussed four major events in the first 40 years of the twentieth century: Progressivism, World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II. How did Progressivism and the New Deal change the scope of the federal government and its relations with everyday Americans? Discuss the experiences of Americans (whites, African Americans, immigrants, and women) on the Homefront during World War I and World War II. Do you think that Progressivism and the Great Depression/New Deal helped to prepare the United States for entry in the wars? DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS:Essays must conform to ALL conventions of formal writing. This means that your essays are expected to be doubled-spaced, 12-point font, grammatically correct, and refer back to the primary documents.Please submit your document as a Microsoft Word file – or a similar word processing file. DO NOT convert the file to a PDF.Format• Your essay should begin with a paragraph that introduces the essay. You should also have a sentence or two that attempts to answers the above questions. These answers are your arguments.• In the body paragraphs of the essay, use examples and evidence from the primary to answer the questions above. • The last paragraph of the paper should be your conclusion. In your conclusion, summarize your arguments you made to answer the question.QuotationsYour answer should be based on material provided to you on Canvas, as well as the assigned reading for this course. DO NOT CONSULT ANY OTHER OUTSIDE SOURCES!!! I do not want to know what Google or Wikipedia tells you about this topic. All the information you need to answer this question can be found in the documents posted on Canvas. I will dock points for any outside research!You can quote directly from the primary documents. I am not concerned with formal citations; however, you need to make some effort at showing me what documents you found the quote. You are free to use Chicago, MLA, or APA if you’re comfortable with those citations. If you don’t know any of those, just include the last name of the interviewee and the page number after your quote.EXAMPLE:Armando Lopez said of the Cuban Club, “They give me some kind of assistance in time of sickness and sometimes if I get sick, they give me a small amount of money (Lopez 11).”Don’t forget, you MUST also introduce and contextualize your quotes. You must tell your reader what document you’re quoting.EXAMPLE:• GOOD: Former slaves offered their own definitions of freedom. As Jourdan Anderson explained in a letter to his former master, “here I draw my wages every Saturday night; but in Tennessee there was never any pay-day for the negroes any more than for the horses and cows.” For Anderson, payment for one’s work represented an important part of the transition to freedom.• BAD: Former slaves had their own definitions of freedom. “Here I draw my wages every Saturday night; but in Tennessee there was never any pay-day for the negroes any more than for the horses and cows.”The second example is extraordinarily confusing for your reader. Who are you quoting? Are these your words? Introduce your quotes, and then explain them in your own words.You should also try to avoid extended quotations. In almost all circumstances, you shouldn’t be quoting more than one or two sentences at a time. When you’re trying to quote a longer passage, intersperse your own words as necessary. When we see paragraph-length citations we start to worry that you’re just trying to fill up space…

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A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
Vo l u m e 2
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A Documentary History
Fifth Edition

Vo l u m e 2
W. W. N O R T O N & C O M PA N Y . N E W Y O R K . L O N D O N
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W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when
William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered
at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper
Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books
by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly
established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its
employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of
trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company
stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.
Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Manufacturing by Maple Press
Book design by Antonina Krass
Composition by Westchester Book Group
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Foner, Eric, 1943– editor.
Title: Voices of freedom: a documentary history / edited by Eric Foner.
Description: Fifth edition. | New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016. |
Includes bibliographical references.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016045203 | ISBN 9780393614497 (pbk., v. 1) |
ISBN 9780393614503 (pbk., v. 2)
Subjects: LCSH: United States—History—Sources. | United States—Politics
and government—Sources.
Classification: LCC E173 .V645 2016 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at
ISBN: 978-0-393-61450-3 (pbk.)
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110
wwnorton .com
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
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ERIC FONER is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia
University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and
scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery,
and nineteenth- century America. Professor Foner’s publications
include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican
Party Before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Politics
and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: American’s Unfinished Revolution,
1863–1877; Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders
During Reconstruction; The Story of American Freedom; Who Owns History? Rethinking the Past in a Changing World; and Forever Free: The
Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Reconstruction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft
Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He served as president of the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and the Society of American Historians. His most recent trade
publications include The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American
Slavery, which won numerous awards including the Lincoln Prize,
the Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize, and Gateway to Freedom:
The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad.
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“What Is Freedom?”: Reconstruction, 1865– 1877
95. Petition of Black Residents of Nashville (1865)
96. Petition of Committee on Behalf of the Freedmen to
Andrew Johnson (1865)
97. The Mississippi Black Code (1865)
98. A Sharecropping Contract (1866)
99. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Home Life” (ca. 1875)
100. Frederick Douglass, “The Composite Nation” (1869)
101. Robert B. Elliott on Civil Rights (1874)
America’s Gilded Age, 1870– 1890
102. Jorgen and Otto Jorgensen, Homesteading in Montana (1908)
103. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth (1889)
104. William Graham Sumner on Social Darwinism (ca. 1880)
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105. A Second Declaration of Independence (1879)
106. Henry George, Progress and Poverty (1879)
107. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward (1888)
108. Walter Rauschenbusch and the Social Gospel (1912)
Freedom’s Boundaries, at Home
and Abroad, 1890– 1900
109. The Populist Platform (1892)
110. Booker T. Washington, Address at the Atlanta Cotton
Exposition (1895)
111. W. E. B. Du Bois, A Critique of Booker T. Washington (1903)
112. Ida B. Wells, Crusade for Justice (ca. 1892)
113. Frances E. Willard, Women and Temperance (1883)
114. Josiah Strong, Our Country (1885)
115. Emilio Aguinaldo on American Imperialism in the
Philippines (1899)
The Progressive Era, 1900– 1916
116. Manuel Gamio on a Mexican-American Family and
American Freedom (ca. 1926)
117. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics (1898)
118. John A. Ryan, A Living Wage (1912)
119. The Industrial Workers of the World and the Free
Speech Fights (1909)
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120. Margaret Sanger on “Free Motherhood,” from Woman
and the New Race (1920)
121. Mary Church Terrell, “What It Means to Be Colored
in the Capital of the United States” (1906)
122. Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom (1912)
123. R. G. Ashley, Unions and “The Cause of Liberty” (1910)
Safe for Democracy: The United States
and World War I, 1916– 1920
124. Woodrow Wilson, A World “Safe for Democracy” (1917)
125. Randolph Bourne, “War Is the Health of the State” (1918)
126. A Critique of the Versailles Peace Conference (1919)
127. Carrie Chapman Catt, Address to Congress on Women’s
Suffrage (1917)
128. Eugene V. Debs, Speech to the Jury (1918)
129. Rubie Bond, The Great Migration (1917)
130. Marcus Garvey on Africa for the Africans (1921)
131. John A. Fitch on the Great Steel Strike (1919)
From Business Culture to Great Depression:
The Twenties, 1920– 1932
132. André Siegfried on the “New Society,” from the
Atlantic Monthly (1928)
133. The Fight for Civil Liberties (1921)
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134. Bartolomeo Vanzetti’s Last Statement in Court (1927)
135. Congress Debates Immigration (1921)
136. Meyer v. Nebraska and the Meaning of Liberty (1923)
137. Alain Locke, The New Negro (1925)
138. Elsie Hill and Florence Kelley Debate the Equal Rights
Amendment (1922)
The New Deal, 1932– 1940
139. Letter to Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins (1937)
140. John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies (1936)
141. Labor’s Great Upheaval (1937)
142. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Speech to the Democratic
National Convention (1936)
143. Herbert Hoover on the New Deal and Liberty (1936)
144. Norman Cousins, “Will Women Lose Their Jobs?” (1939)
145. Frank H. Hill on the Indian New Deal (1935)
146. W. E. B. Du Bois, “A Negro Nation within a Nation” (1935)
Fighting for the Four Freedoms:
World War II, 1941– 1945
147. Franklin D. Roosevelt on the Four Freedoms (1941)
148. Will Durant, Freedom of Worship (1943)
149. Henry R. Luce, The American Century (1941)
150. Henry A. Wallace on “The Century of the Common Man” (1942)
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151. F. A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944)
152. World War II and Mexican-Americans (1945)
153. African-Americans and the Four Freedoms (1944)
154. Justice Robert A. Jackson, Dissent in Korematsu v.
United States (1944)
The United States and the Cold War, 1945– 1953
155. Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic
of Vietnam (1945)
156. The Truman Doctrine (1947)
157. NSC 68 and the Ideological Cold War (1950)
158. Walter Lippmann, A Critique of Containment (1947)
159. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
160. President’s Commission on Civil Rights,
To Secure These Rights (1947)
161. Joseph R. McCarthy on the Attack (1950)
162. Margaret Chase Smith, Declaration of Conscience (1950)
163. Will Herberg, The American Way of Life (1955)
An Af f luent Society, 1953– 1960
164. Richard M. Nixon, “What Freedom Means to Us” (1959)
165. Daniel L. Schorr, “Reconverting Mexican Americans” (1946)
166. The Southern Manifesto (1956)
167. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (1962)
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168. C. Wright Mills on “Cheerful Robots” (1959)
169. Allen Ginsberg, “Howl” (1955)
170. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
The Sixties, 1960– 1968
171. John F. Kennedy, Speech on Civil Rights (1963)
172. Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet (1964)
173. Barry Goldwater on “Extremism in the Defense
of Liberty” (1964)
174. Lyndon B. Johnson, Commencement Address at Howard
University (1965)
175. The Port Huron Statement (1962)
176. Paul Potter on the Antiwar Movement (1965)
177. The National Organization for Women (1966)
178. César Chavez, “Letter from Delano” (1969)
179. The International 1968 (1968)
The Triumph of Conservatism, 1969– 1988
180. Brochure on the Equal Rights Amendment (1970s)
181. Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle (1971)
182. The Sagebrush Rebellion (1979)
183. Jimmy Carter on Human Rights (1977)
184. Jerry Falwell, Listen, America! (1980)
185. Phyllis Schlafly, “The Fraud of the Equal Rights
Amendment” (1972)
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186. James Watt, “Environmentalists: A Threat to the Ecology
of the West” (1978)
187. Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address (1981)
From Triumph to Tragedy, 1989– 2001
188. Pat Buchanan, Speech to the Republican
National Convention (1992)
189. Bill Clinton, Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993)
190. Declaration for Global Democracy (1999)
191. The Beijing Declaration on Women (1995)
192. Puwat Charukamnoetkanok, “Triple Identity:
My Experience as an Immigrant in America” (1990)
A New Century and New Crises
193. The National Security Strategy of the United States (2002)
194. Robert Byrd on the War in Iraq (2003)
195. Second Inaugural Address of George W. Bush (2005)
196. Archbishop Roger Mahoney, “Called by God to Help” (2006)
197. Anthony Kennedy, Opinion of the Court in
Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
198. Security, Liberty, and the War on Terror (2008)
199. Barack Obama, Eulogy at Emanuel African Methodist
Episcopal Church (2015)
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Voices of Freedom is a documentary history of American freedom
from the earliest days of European exploration and settlement of
the Western Hemisphere to the present. I have prepared it as a companion volume to Give Me Liberty!, my survey textbook of the history of the United States centered on the theme of freedom. This
fifth edition of Voices of Freedom is organized in chapters that correspond to those in the fifth edition of the textbook. But it can also
stand independently as a documentary introduction to the history
of American freedom. The two volumes include more than twenty
documents not available in the third edition.
No idea is more fundamental to Americans’ sense of themselves
as individuals and as a nation than freedom, or liberty, with which
it is almost always used interchangeably. The Declaration of Independence lists liberty among mankind’s inalienable rights; the
Constitution announces as its purpose to secure liberty’s blessings.
“ Every man in the street, white, black, red or yellow,” wrote the
educator and statesman Ralph Bunche in 1940, “knows that this is
‘the land of the free’ . . . ‘the cradle of liberty.’ ”
The very universality of the idea of freedom, however, can be
misleading. Freedom is not a fixed, timeless category with a single
unchanging definition. Rather, the history of the United States is, in
part, a story of debates, disagreements, and struggles over freedom.
Crises such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the Cold
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War have permanently transformed the idea of freedom. So too
have demands by various groups of Americans for greater freedom
as they understood it.
In choosing the documents for Voices of Freedom, I have attempted
to convey the multifaceted history of this compelling and contested
idea. The documents reflect how Americans at dif ferent points in
our history have defined freedom as an overarching idea, or have
understood some of its many dimensions, including political, religious, economic, and personal freedom. For each chapter, I have
tried to select documents that highlight the specific discussions of
freedom that occurred during that time period, and some of the
divergent interpretations of freedom at each point in our history. I
hope that students will gain an appreciation of how the idea of
freedom has expanded over time, and how it has been extended into
more and more areas of Americans’ lives. But at the same time, the
documents suggest how freedom for some Americans has, at various
times in our history, rested on lack of freedom— slavery, indentured servitude, the subordinate position of women—for others.
The documents that follow reflect the kinds of historical developments that have shaped and reshaped the idea of freedom, including
war, economic change, territorial expansion, social protest movements, and international involvement. The selections try to convey
a sense of the rich cast of characters who have contributed to the
history of American freedom. They include presidential proclamations and letters by runaway slaves, famous court cases and obscure
manifestos, ideas dominant in a par ticular era and those of radicals
and dissenters. They range from advertisements in colonial newspapers seeking the return of runaway indentured servants and
slaves to debates in the early twentieth century over the definition of
economic freedom, the controversy over the proposed Equal Rights
Amendment for women, and recent Supreme Court decisions dealing with the balance between liberty and security in war time.
I have been particularly attentive to how battles at the boundaries of freedom—the efforts of racial minorities, women, and
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others to secure greater freedom—have deepened and transformed
the concept and extended it into new realms. In addition, in this
fifth edition I have included a number of new documents that illustrate how the history of the western United States, and more particularly the borderlands area of the Southwest, have affected the
evolution of the idea of freedom. These include the Texas Declaration of Independence of 1836, a reminiscence about homesteading
in the West in the late nineteenth century, a report on the status
of Mexican-Americans in the aftermath of World War II, and an
explanation of the so-called Sagebrush Rebellion of the 1970s.
All of the documents in this collection are “primary sources”—
that is, they were written or spoken by men and women enmeshed
in the events of the past, rather than by later historians. They therefore offer students the opportunity to encounter ideas about freedom in the actual words of participants in the drama of American
history. Some of the documents are reproduced in their entirety.
Most are excerpts from longer interviews, articles, or books. In editing the documents, I have tried to remain faithful to the original
purpose of the author, while highlighting the portion of the text
that deals directly with one or another aspect of freedom. In most
cases, I have reproduced the wording of the original texts exactly.
But I have modernized the spelling and punctuation of some early
documents to make them more understandable to the modern
reader. Each document is preceded by a brief introduction that
places it in historical context and is followed by two questions that
highlight key elements of the argument and may help to focus
students’ thinking about the issues raised by the author.
A number of these documents were suggested by students in
a U.S. history class at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania,
taught by Professor David Hsiung. I am very grateful to these students, who responded enthusiastically to an assignment by Professor Hsiung that asked them to locate documents that might be
included in this edition of Voices of Freedom and to justify their
choices with historical arguments. Some of the documents are
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included in the online exhibition, “Preserving American Freedom,”
created by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Taken together, the documents in these volumes suggest the
ways in which American freedom has changed and expanded over
time. But they also remind us that American history is not simply
a narrative of continual progress toward greater and greater freedom.
While freedom can be achieved, it may also be reduced or rescinded.
It can never be taken for granted.
Eric Foner
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A Documentary History
Fifth Edition
Vo l u m e 2
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“What Is Freedom?”:
Reconstruction, 1865– 1877
95. Petition of Black Residents of Nashville
Source: Newspaper clipping enclosed in Col. R. D. Mussey to Capt.
C. P. Brown, January 23, 1865, Letters Received, ser. 925, Department
of the Cumberland, U.S. Army Continental Commands, National Archives.
At the request of military governor Andrew Johnson, Lincoln exempted
Tennessee from the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 (although many
slaves in the state gained their freedom by serving in the Union army).
In January 1865, a state convention was held to complete the work of
abolition. A group of free blacks of Nashville sent a petition to the delegates, asking for immediate action to end slavery and granting black
men the right to vote (which free blacks had enjoyed in the state until
1835). The document emphasized their loyalty to the Union, their natural right to freedom, and their willingness to take on the responsibilities
of citizenship. The document offers a revealing snapshot of black consciousness at the dawn of Reconstruction.
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Vo i c e s o f F r e e d o m
To the Union Convention of Tennessee Assembled in the
Capitol at Nashville, January 9th, 1865:
We the undersigned petitioners, American citizens of African
descent, natives and residents of Tennessee, and devoted friends of
the great National cause, do most respectfully ask a patient hearing
of your honorable body in regard to matters deeply affecting the
future condition of our unfortunate and long sufferin …
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