ALL answers should be in-depth, should include critical thinking and/or personal application, and sh

  

ALL answers should be in-depth, should include critical thinking and/or personal application, and should be accurate to the textbook. Please include references to the book in APA formatting style.The questions are in the docx I attached. I have answered three questions. Please type the answers of the rest questions under each question. It is due 11:45p.m. today.
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Area 1: Learning
1. Between 1969 and 1972, 19-year-old men in the US were selected at random
to fight in the Vietnam War. Since this was an unpopular war, many didn’t
want to go, while some moved to Canada to escape this military draft, others
became more creative. Some put on a blood pressure cuff and then shocked
themselves with a shock generator of some kind. As you can imagine, this
immediately kicked in their sympathetic nervous system causing a large
increase in blood pressure. After several repetitions, just putting the blood
pressure cuff alone was enough to cause an increase in blood
pressure. When their numbers were called and they went in for their
physicals, the blood pressure cuff went on, their blood pressure sky-rocketed,
and they received medical exemptions; they weren’t deemed healthy enough
to serve in the military.
a. In this example, identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned
response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response.
unconditioned stimulus: the shock
unconditioned response: increase in blood pressure
conditioned stimulus: blood pressure cuff
conditioned response: increase in blood pressure
b. Use this example to explain generalization and discrimination.
Generalization tends to respond to different but similar stimuli in the same way.
When a different type of blood pressure cuff is used, it generates the same
response.
Discrimination is the ability to distinguish between conditional stimuli and
other stimuli that are not paired with unconditional stimuli. If we wrap the
cloth tightly around our arms in order to apply enough pressure in the arteries
instead of the blood pressure cuff. Due to the difference between the two
stimuli, the expected response is not triggered.
c. What would they need to do to experience extinction? What would
spontaneous recovery look like?
Extinction occurs when a conditional stimulus (blood pressure cuff) is
presented without unconditional stimulation (shock) which means conditional
stimulation (blood pressure cuff) will no longer cause a conditional response
(blood pressure rise).
Extinction takes place when the conditional stimulus (blood pressure cuff)
does not cause a conditional response (increase in blood pressure) for a long
time. However, after a short interval, when a conditional stimulus is presented
again, it produces a conditional response which is spontaneous recovery.
2. [Arlo sits on the couch, turns on the TV, and soon after, falls asleep. Janis
points out that he always sits in front of the TV at night, with the same result.]
a. In this cartoon, identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned
response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response.
b. Use this example to explain generalization and discrimination.
c. What would need to happen in order to bring about extinction? What
would spontaneous recovery look like?
3. Classical and operant conditioning are types of associative learning. What is
being associated in classical conditioning? What is being associated in
operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning involves involuntary reactions and stimuli, while
operational conditioning reflects voluntary behavior and outcomes. In
operational conditioning, learners are also rewarded, while classical
conditioning does not.
4. If you say “okay” to your friend just so he will stop talking, is your saying
“okay” being positively reinforced, negatively reinforced, positively punished,
or negatively punished. Explain. Begin by identifying the (a) operant and the
(b) consequence.
5. If you check your voicemail so that your phone stops alerting you that you
have a “new voicemail”, is your voicemail checking being positively
reinforced, negatively reinforced, positively punished, or negatively
punished. Explain. Begin by identifying the (a) operant and the (b)
consequence.
6. If a child screams loudly and then her daddy stops the car to get her ice
cream, is the child’s screaming being positively reinforced, negatively
reinforced, positively punished, or negatively punished. Explain. What
about dad’s behavior? Hint: identify the (a) operant and the (b) consequence
for EACH PERSON – the child first, then the dad – and then identify the type
of conditioning.
7. This comic is illustrating both classical and operant conditioning. Can you
identify both?
a. For classical conditioning, notice in the last panel, Eno (the man in the
comic) is salivating. Identify the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned
response, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response.
b. For operant conditioning, identify the operant (the behavior). Is that
behavior being positively reinforced, negatively reinforced, positively
punished, or negatively punished? Explain.
8. Read this article (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) from
the National Safety Commission. Explain the results in terms of operant
conditioning. Specifically, explain why group 2 had the best driving
behavior. Identify the independent variable (the experimental and control
conditions) and the dependent variable.
9. Summarize your understanding of classical conditioning and operant
conditioning. How will you tell the difference between them on a test
question (i.e., a story about a person learning something)?
10. When companies market products to the public, they use classical
conditioning and operant conditioning. For this question, pretend that you
are trying to market a real product that can be found on amazon.com
(supply a link to it). Then, write an idea for a commercial that uses both
classical conditioning and operant conditioning to sell it. Your written
idea doesn’t need to be long to be accurate. Finally, identify (1) howyour
commercial contains classical conditioning (be specific, identifying US, UR,
CS, and CR) and (2) how your commercial contains operant conditioning (be
specific, identifying both the operant and the consequence).
Area 2: Human Development
1. Your 10 year old nephew hears you talking about genes and says, ‘My
favorite jeans are Levi’s”. Explain genes to him in a way he could
understand.
2. Watch this 10-minute video. What is epigenetics? Why is it
important?Epigenetics (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site.
3. What are teratogens? Based on what you know about teratogens, what
advice would you give to pregnant women and the people who live and
work around them?
4. Imagine that your sister recently had a baby. Explain to her what she can
expect over the next few months in terms of brain development and motor
development.
5. What is attachment? (ii) Explain how Mary Ainsworth studied it and what
she observed. Then, read this article (Links to an external site.) (Links to an
external site.) Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)(links to
external site). Finally, take either of the attachment questionnaires (Links to
an external site.) (Links to an external site.) Links to an external
site. (Links to an external site.)(links to an external site). iii) How do
researchers think that attachment style affects romantic relationships later
in life? Give examples. iv) Do you agree with your test results? Why?
6. Explain how Jean Piaget believed that children advance in thinking and
remembering? In which ways did Lev Vygotsky disagree with Piaget?
7. What determines sexual development (i.e. puberty) in adolescents? How to
boys and girls differ in the effects of late vs early sexual development?
8. Read about Parenting Styles. What type of parents do/did you
have? Authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive? Explain your choice.
My parents are authoritative. They are not strict. I have a lot of
communications with them. If I do something wrong, they will not give a
punishment. They usually talk to me about my behaviors and suggest me
how I can be better. We also shared a lot of things we experienced in a day
with each other. They said I was like their friend, especially my mom.
Wrap Up Question (some content from previous chapters):
1. Iris is about to come back to campus to begin her final year of college. She’s
a little nervous since she will be working 30 hours per week while being a
full-time student. In addition, she recently started dating someone. Explain
how understanding the following concepts might help Iris have success at
her job, school, and relationship:




Operant Conditioning
Her Insecure Attachment
Correlation
Sympathetic Nervous System

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