Actually I want you to rewrite it. I want you to just focus on educate high school student of how th

  

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1
Measures for Reducing the Cost of Higher Education – Outline
I.
II.
Introduction
Causes of the High Cost of Higher Education
III.
Adverse Impacts of the High Cost of Higher Education
IV.
Recommended Measures of Reducing High Cost of Higher Education
V.
Conclusion
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Professor
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Date
Measures for Reducing the Cost of Higher Education
Introduction
The tuition cost for higher education in the United States is the highest among the
developed nations of the world and would continue to do so as many public universities and
colleges continue to experience funding challenges due to budget cuts. Unfortunately, education
remains one of the most important human development instruments for achieving the
socioeconomic and political aspirations of any nation and their sustenance into the future. While
several issues are responsible for the increasing cost of tuition and other costs at the nation’s
colleges and universities, funding policies of the state governments remain the leading cause of
the problem. Other issues include the consideration of these higher educational institutions as
businesses and non-consideration for the value that the system contributes to the public good of
the country. It is these factors that should inform the identification of the measures that
policymakers can adopt and integral into the higher education policies of their state and increase
their overall long-term positive impacts on the economic growth of the states such as the ones
that exist in North Dakota. Therefore, the analytical review of the various issues surrounding the
cost of higher education in the United States showed that use of lower cost alternative,
technology utilization, and optimization, and improved collaboration among the institutions are
evidence-based measures for solving the problem.
Causes of the High Cost of Higher Education
The decision of public colleges and universities to run their operations as business
systems to cover for the funding gaps that result from the budget cuts by the state governments is
one of the major causes of the high cost of tertiary education in the United States. According to
Adam Davidson, the higher education institutions are experiencing challenges with the
management of high tuition fees because they are not operating in a single cohesive market
system that should allow them to treat students as commodities or products. The scholar further
argued that the shift from public funding from the state government to internally-generated
financial resources is the reason for the increasing emphasis on pricing models that are
misaligned with the purpose of higher education in the country (2). For example, North Dakota
University charges non-resident American students more than residents because of the need to
improve the complete rate of high school students and generate more funds to meet its cost.
While this approach might appear economically appropriate, these colleges and universities have
different expenditures that do not contribute to the training and education of the students.
Therefore, the adoption of inappropriate business models that are characterized by unstable
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pricing systems and high operational cost is part of the issues responsible for the high price of
higher education across the country.
Additionally, the cost of higher education in the United States is high because state
governments have become minor stakeholders in the post-secondary level of the educational
system. Aside from forcing public colleges and universities to become profit-driven, it is
changing the perspective that education is a public good that significant positive impacts on their
political stability and economic growth. Howard Cohen stated that the decision to reduce funding
to the colleges and universities as soon as a state experiences budget challenges is evidence of
the perspective of government that the individuals who use their degrees and diplomas to
improve their social attainment should pay ‘user fees” for their education is part of the factors
responsible for the high cost of higher education in the United States (1). Although the individual
is the immediate beneficiary of his or her higher education, the benefits from the increased taxes
collected by the state, participation in civic duties, and lower healthcare cost are not considered
when making funding decisions to these institutions. Hence, students are expected to pay the
tuition fees that allow them to participate in a system that benefits them despite the long-term
positive impacts on the growth of society and its stability.
Furthermore, the review of the issues within the higher education system of the United
States that fail to consider the significant impacts of college and university graduates to the
public good is creating funding challenges for the institutions. According to Adam Davidson,
public universities and colleges are receiving lower per-student funds from the state budget for
resident students and failing to cover the difference from the financial aids that were issued by
the federal government (3). In most states in the country, the funding for education is focused on
primary and secondary schools which influences the allocation of resources to the colleges and
universities and reducing the chances of students from low-income communities for getting
access to tertiary education and the opportunities that are associated with the system. An
additional aspect of the relationship between reducing funding and the cost of higher education is
the need to increase the quality of educational services that are delivered to students. In this
regard, the high competition for the enrollment of international and out-of-state students has
increased the pressure on these institutions to seek alternative funding sources to maintain their
standard. As a result, the universities and colleges have continued to increase the tuition cost for
students yearly to meet their high expenditure.
Adverse Impacts of High Cost of Higher Education
The higher education system plays a prominent role in the socioeconomic development of
the people and the stability of the political structures and institutions of any society. It is the
reason why the rising cost of tuition fees should concern all stakeholders in the sector and other
aspects of our community. According to Barber Michael and colleagues, the higher cost of
college and university education means reduced access for families to the opportunities that
would contribute to their prosperity and growth in their respective communities regardless of
race or ethnicity. The position of these scholars that is based on their findings on the relationship
of education and social advancement shows that low-income families would have lower chances
of upward social mobility and make decisions to reduce the cost burden on the healthcare and
criminal justice system (15). When these negative consequences are combined with the loss of
the public goodwill that higher education is designed to promote in the country, the imperatives
for developing appropriate and relevant solutions to the problem becomes apparent. Hence, it is
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pertinent to examine other adverse impacts of the high cost of higher education in the United
States as part of the measures to develop a comprehensive strategy for reducing its adverse
effects on the citizens and the nation.
Meanwhile, students from middle-class families are facing challenges with meeting the
high tuition fees through the high student loans that remain a significant financial burden on
them for most of their lives after graduation. Although the demand for higher education
qualifications is higher in the past decades, the salaries and wages received from the employment
and the need to meet other basic human needs make it difficult for these graduates to pay their
debt from the financial aid used to fund their education. An additional adverse impact of the high
cost of education is the reduced completion rate of students from low-income communities due
to the ancillary cost of their degree or diploma programs including accommodation, feeding, and
the cost of textbooks (Davidson 4). Therefore, the evidence from various investigations showed
that it is highly essential for change of the policies of universities and colleges in ways that
eliminate some of the factors that are responsible for the high cost of education but does not
directly contribute to the training of the students.
Recommended Measures of Reducing High Cost of Higher Education
In this section of the report, the recommended measures are based on the findings from
the literature on the most effective and relevant measures for eliminating some of the factors that
contribute to the high cost of higher education in the country. It will include the use of lower cost
alternatives, increased utilization of technological solutions for instructional delivery and
management, and improved collaboration between the institutions. Therefore, the essence of the
information that is provided in this aspect of the report is the illustration of their elements into
the overall higher education policies of the states.
Lower Cost Alternatives
The increased enrolment into community colleges is one of the lower cost alternatives
that can increase the enrolment figures of all lower-income into post-secondary education
institution and align with the business model that is used to run the university. Harris Adam
claimed that one of the rationales for the clamor to shift the focus from 4-year degree programs
to the two-year one that is recommended for dealing with the adverse impacts of higher
education cost is the reduced profitability of the university qualification. For example, the
average tuition fee for a public in-state university in North Dakota for the 2013-2014 academic
year is $25,000 for a four-year program. In contrast, a student that attends a two-year program at
a community would spend an estimated $4,000 less per annum and avoid the burden of student
loans. However, the greater benefit to the system is the production of graduates who can be
employed immediately after school, reduction of the rate of unemployment, and more significant
contribution to the economy and growth of the society. Therefore, community colleges provide
the alternative higher education system that institutions can adopt to increase the completion rate
of students and improve their reputation due to the income-generating potential of their degrees.
Additionally, the promotion of the dual enrollment program is another policy measure
that can be adopted by state governments to reduce the cost of funding public colleges and
universities. The primary purpose of the strategy is the reduction of the number of a college
course that post-secondary students would require to attend and the cost of the faculty which
delivers them. According to Quinton Sophie, this is one of the most effective solutions to reduce
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the operational cost of the public colleges and universities because of the estimated $3,500 per
semester that is spent by public colleges and universities to subsidize the cost of their training.
She further added that this lower cost alternative is an ideal policy approach that would improve
the quality of education but reduce the cost of operating the institutions because the students
would save cost that could amount to debt when enrolled in a post-secondary institution (2). For
example, a student of North Dakota University spends an average of $1,000 per course and $4,
200 per semester, which are costs that can be reduced through the increased utilization of the
Advanced Placement (AP) and College Level Examination Program (CLEP) that offer college
credit to high school students. Therefore, there it is recommended that government should
increase the education and awareness of parents and students on the short- and long-term benefits
of these programs and encourage the public tertiary institutions to invest more resources in them
and eliminate the need for students to take redundant courses.
Meanwhile, a reform to the academic employment policies of public universities is
another form of lower cost alternative that is recommended as part of the changes to the overall
policy of managing the institutions. In this regard, universities need to eliminate the tenure
system for faculties and adopt the current model that is used by most colleges to manage their
employment contract and reduce the cost of training students that contribute to the high cost of
post-secondary education in the country. According to Harris Adam, the recommended changes
to the academic tenure would eliminate the offer of guaranteed employment to professors and
faculty that do not contribute to the revenue-generating capacity of the universities but increases
the level of job insecurity among the tenured ones (3). An example of the potential of this
measure to reduce the cost of tuition fee at the University of North Dakota is the review of the
tenured- faculties in ways that encourage them to increase their commitment to the university
and motivate to enhance the quality of learning. Also, it is recommended that universities adopt
the contingent faculty approach used by public colleges to lower their cost of training students
and provide employment for the growing number of non-tenured faculty and professors who can
contribute to increased revenue generation. Thus, a reform of the academic employment policies
of public universities would eliminate the high compensation packages that are offered to
professors and faculties who do not contribute less to the training of students but cause tuition to
get higher.
Technology Utilization and Optimization
Online education is a form of post-secondary training that offer several ways for lowering
the high cost of education in the United States due to the reduced need for the use of physical
classrooms and their associated cost. The recommended policy change is for universities and
colleges to shift their focus from the traditional class, which require various resources to
maintain but does not provide more significant benefits to the students. While some might argue
that the use of technology has challenges, the advantages outweigh the issues because the current
generation of students is not only tech-savvy but can derive the same knowledge that is provided
by face-to-face instructional delivery. However, the evidence to support this policy
recommendation can be found in the outcome of the study that was conducted by Sanchez
Claudio, which showed that online education would reduce the cost of higher education through
the elimination of the different expenses from the employees and facilities that are used to
provide the traditional classroom educational services. He added that the use of technology is an
effective cost-saving method for the production element of post-secondary education since it
removes the associated services that place a greater demand on the limited resources of the
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public tertiary institutions (12). Therefore, the potential of online education to eliminate the need
for physical facilities and specific non-instructional human resources makes it an appropriate
measure for making post-secondary education more affordable and accessible to all high school
graduates in the country.
Additionally, online education that is delivered by modern technology is recommended as
the new approach for instructional delivery because of the removal of the additional items that
are bundled into the amount that students are charged for the campus model. Examples of these
non- instruction fees from the University of North Dakota include health insurance,
accommodation, recreational facilities, student union dues, and prepaid legal services, among
others. Sanchez Claudio stated that the problem with these additional services is the provision of
facilities and people to manage and deliver them to students, thereby increasing the cost of
tuition paid by students (4). However, the switch of most of the courses to the online education
model would eliminate these costs and subsequently lower the cost of higher education
significantly since colleges and universities would only cater to a larger off-campus student
population and charge these services as optional to those who can afford them. Consequently, it
is recommended that state government develop and implement policies that encourage public
post-secondary institutions to make the delivery of their non-science and engineering courses
limited to classes.
Increased Collaboration among Institutions
Collaboration is recommended as an appropriate strategy to reduce the cost of higher
education because it increases the effectiveness of the departments of the public colleges and
universities through the removal of silos that restrict information exchange between them. Barber
et al. stated that the increased adoption of operational policies that promote internal collaboration
between the public post-secondary institutions in the country would contribute to the attainment
of their cost-saving objectives through the consolidation of administrative services such as
student admission and management. They further added that use of shared campus is an
additional evidence-based measure that can be used to collaborate in ways that would lead to
lower cost of delivering higher education and tuition fees paid by students to access them (19).
For example, the University of North Dakota can be partner with other colleges and universities
in the state to implement a centralized print management function, shared campus security with
those close to each other, and improve partnership with those with share philosophies that meet
the needs of the industries in the states. Therefore, collaboration does not improve the efficiency
of their public colleges and universities but contribute to their higher productivity lower the cost
of providing similar administrative services to their student population.
Conclusion
As a conclusion, the high cost of post-secondary education in the United States is an issue
that requires the development and implementation of new policies that address the various
factors that contribute to the continued existence of the problem and its associated negative
impacts. While the decision to run colleges and universities is regarded as part of the causes of
the problem, the reform of the employment policies of the institutions and adopting of online
class for non-science and engineering programs are measures that are recommended for
accomplishing these goals. Also, the administrators of these institutions need to increase their
rate of collaboration and consolidation of administrative and student services that can be shared
through their location and vision. The evidence from the literature also showed that lower cost
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alternative measures such as community colleges and dual enrollment programs for high school
students could reduce the cost of tuition for students and increase the benefits to the society.
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Works Cited
Barber, Michael, et al. “An avalanche is coming: Higher education and the revolution
ahead.” The Institute of Public Policy Research (2013).
https://www.britishcouncil.jp/sites/default/files/6_march_plenary_talk_1_sir_michael_ba
rber_an_avalanche_is_coming_higher_education_and_the_revolution_ahead.pdf.
Accessed on July 14, 2019.
Cohen, Howard. “Who should pay for higher education.” New York Times (2003). http://www.
nytimes. com/ref/college/collegespecial2/coll_aascu_povcohen.html. Accessed on July
14, 2019.
Davidson, Adam. “Is college tuition really too high.” New York Times (2015): 1-7.
https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/magazine/is-college-tuition-too-high.html
Accessed on July 14, 2019.
Harris, Adam. “America wakes up from its dream of free college.” The Atlantic (2018): 1-6.
https://www.theatlantic.com …
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