1. Start your assignment with an introductory paragraph about your research topic and why it is of i


1. Start your assignment with an introductory paragraph about your research topic and why it is of interest and a research “puzzle”. End your paragraph with your research question.While there are many ways to frame a research question, at the graduate level, your research questions should be 1) open-ended and start with “How,” “Why,” “What,” or “To what extent;” 2) should incorporate the variables you seek to assess and their relationship; and 3) should indicate how you intend to test the nature of that relationship. You want to make sure that your question has an appropriate amount of complexity so that it requires a significant amount of research and analysis. A simple Google search should not be able to answer your research question.Unclear: How can the need for power be harmful?Too simple: What is Hillary Clinton’s position on Obama Care?Too simple: What is Hillary Clinton’s operational code?Too broad: To what extent is Hillary Clinton different from Bill Clinton?Appropriately Complex and Focused: To what extent is Hillary Clinton motivated by a need for power by comparison to Bill Clinton, and how might this impact access and control of information within the White House?2. Next, provide a purpose statement that conveys your intentions about what you hope to produce. See the reference in your Lessons and review that it will usually be prefaced by some phrase like the following: “This paper examines . . .,” “The aim of this paper is to . . .,” or “The purpose of this essay is to . . .”. Remember that a purpose statement makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn. Your purpose statement should demonstrate what you are hoping to find out, and also explain what you want your readers to understand (motivation or argument of the research).This formula and example set from the Baruch College Writing Center may be helpful:I am studying…(Narrowed Topic)…because I want to find out…(Research Question)….so that readers understand…(Motivation or Argument)Differences in Boston-based and Philadelphia-based abolitionist rhetoric……why Boston-based abolitionists emphasized broad themes of social justice……how previous scholars may have overlooked the role of free black Bostonians in shaping anti-slavery ideals.The origins of the Glass-Steagall Act …why lawmakers supported its passage……that their motives resulted not from careful economic analysis but rather from ideological preconceptions about the role of commercial banks in society.(From Baruch College Writing Center “Focusing Research Topics Workshop” www.writingcenter.baruch.cuny.edu)3. You also need to include a preliminary design statement that identifies how you intend to carry out said research. This will allow you to get feedback early on from your thesis professor to help ensure that you are working towards the development of a solid research design. Your design statement needs to go beyond the unhelpful “this paper will use qualitative/quantitative/mixed methods research.” You need to be specific about the kind of data you will need to collect in order to answer your research question and note a specific method or set of methods you intend to use when carrying out this research.4. Finally you will need to include a references page that contains at least 8 sources, 6 of which must be from peer-reviewed journals. These sources must be referenced within the body of your assignment. Please consult the Turabian Style Guide for the correct format for your citation. You may use either Turabian Bibliography format or Turabian References format. Just be consistent!!Use the filename (no spaces) yourlastnameWeek1.doc for uploading this file to the Assignment.Your Assignment due at the end of Week 2 will be a refined version of this exercise after you have received feedback and guidance from your faculty member. The attached document is from Belcher, Wendy Laura. 2009. Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Sage. Chapter 10 on “Editing Your Sentence has an excellent system in place to help ensure that you are submitting error free assignment

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Revi ing can be divided into two catc
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Macrostruaure R~SinQ
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Macrostructure r<-vising 1· sure you have a solid structure. . nvo1ves big ch d a dmg examples, deleting .. angcs-moving paragraphs, sections and ' · ~ wntmg pag(-s. 9'0 • • · --- The v.rriting research shows that mac tru (!)ros cture .. difficult kind of revising to do, the least likely t reVIsmg is the most ficult to teach. Studies show.that inexperie odget ~one, and the most dif. nee wnters te d face changes to th e1r prose, while expen· d . n to make surence wnter k changes. As the scholar Meredith Sue Willi . s ma e deeper . . s pomts out wh first learned to wnte, we sunply wrote down th ' en most of us e words that c . · Those words were largely others' words and we did .. ame to mmd.1 . . not revtse them In study, noviCe wnters were shown to do very littl . . · one d . e revtsmg Th onlv 12 percent of their changes to meaning hil . · ey rna e J ' w e expenenced ·t made 34 percent of their changes to meaning (Faigle d w· wn ers .· · 't 't? v ld think Yan 1tte 1981). Surpnsmg, tsn 1 . 10U wou that better writers w ld . ou produce flawless dra f ts th e first time around, that better writers w uld k · b · o rna e fewer h changes to t etr prose, ut m fact, the opposite is true-go d . o wnters make more changes. They know that there is more than one way to say something and that they .may not ha: e hit the best way on their first try. So, if you have been making lots of b1g changes to your article, that is a sign of your skill, not your lack of it! Just know that many bad writers avoid macrostructure revising, and many good writers continue to struggle with it- that's why so much of this workbook is devoted to it. . Mlcrostruaure Revtslnf! This week you w ill turn to the second category of revising: microstructure revising. Many people call this kind of revising "editing" or even "proofreading," in which you examine individual words and sentences for opportunities to address grammar, punctuation, spelling, and diction. When people talk about "good writing," they often mean that the piece is working at the microstructure level, without grammatical errors or infelicities of style. Although I only spend one week on this type of revising, it is vital that you learn to edit your own writing. It can make a huge difference in the acceptability of your article. Good writing can (unfortunately) cover up bad research and bad ideas, but good research usually cannot carry_ a badly written article into publication. Further, good microstructure revtsing can 1ead to good macro revlSmg. · · Sometimes · · ving a single word unpro can help you to put your argument better and lead you back to macrostructure revising. . Once you have done the revising proposed in this chapter, you wtll be ready to finalize your article for submission. THE M RULES OF EDITING t · prove academic any e.xcellent books have been published about how 0 tml rr. Lessons iu wn'ti ng. One of the best books is Joseph M. Will'1am '9 Stye·· 1e11 IN WEEK 10: ST'RucnoN 237 240 EDITING YOUR SENTENCES recommend any o f the books by John M. Swales and Christine B.. Peak, induct. · A endem1c· wn·t·mg fior Graduate Students (1994) and Englzsh mg . . .in Today's Research World (2000). Further, t:hls diagnostic tes~ cannot Id.entify all the places where you could improve your prose. Only ong ex~enence reading in your field, studying style and grammar m~ua~, or taking composition classes can gh·e you aJJ the tools you need to Identify poor prose and Write correct prose. . . Many students know that they should d o ~omet~g to rmprove their prose, but when they sit down with their entire article of 5,000 to 15,000 words, they feel overwhelmed. Where to ~tart an~ ho~? ~y diagnostic test makes the task of line editing less dauntmg by 1dentifymg some straightforward problems and giving some simple solutions. It gives you a method for entering sentences and fixing problems. Then you will find it easier to solve the sentence's other problems. The test is also helpful for good selfeditors who need a (fun) way to defamiliarize their prose for a last check. All writers have blind spots and this test can help you to detec:t them. If the test seems overwhelming at first, remember that according to linguistic theory, there are only four categories of transformation: deletion, addition, substitution, and rearrangement. In other words, there are only four kinds of changes you can make to your prose. That seems manageable, right? Start with the simplest possible solution, and only if that doesn't work should you try something more complicated. I studied copyediting with a famous instructor in Washington D.C., Bita Lanys, who taught generations of copyeditors to train their steely eyes on turgid government prose. On the first day of class, she told us that any idiot could change a text 50 percent and improve it 50 percent. You were an editor, she said, when you could change a text 5 percent and improve it 50 percent. Read the principles below to understand why the diagnostic test will focus on signal words. Dla.Qnostlc Test Part 1: Words that MIQht Need to Be Cut The follo~ing words signal possible deadwood (unneeded words). If you can. ~wn~e the sentence without them, consider doing so. (Those of !ou ~a milia~ With Strunk and Wltite' s Elements of Style will notice that it has msptred qUJte a few of the examples below.) Search for snd and or. E'th f h . 1 • er o t ese conJunctions can signal doubling (the use of two words where on ·n d ) 'T' • bl' d 1t h . e WI 0 · JO 1mprove a sentence with doumg, e e e t e Signal word and one of the . 'I • Doubl y. Simi ar terms. . es~ ang and Yu argued that emotion is necessary and essential. 5 mg1es: rang and Yu argued th t . Note: "Yan a , . a emotion is n ecessary. g nd Yu LS not a doubling-the two words do not m ean th e same thing essential" is ad bl'-so ~ou cannot cut eithe r. But "necessary and ou mg; pick one of the words. ... . . 88- conJunctions can signal a list hi . E1.ther of these . If h . w ch lS fin 1'f th you ave listed all the sub t . e e list is 0111 prehenstve. t no c . li ca egones co 'd . the comprehensive stand using the catego . ' nst er delet~ . ry~~ • List of subcategones: She asked the men · stand. , women, and chlldren to I Category: She asked the congregation to stand Note: Any list should have a parallel structure ( . . ple later). more on this pnnci. Either of these conjunctions can signal a list which · fin if ' ts e you mtroduce it. Structure the sentence so that the list concept appears first and then the list. • ~ist concept la.st: The predo~~t so~d~ of the steel guitar and fiddle, vocal timbers of stram In thetr higher registers, regional accents, comparable ranges, and lyrics that address the pains of romance demonstrate that Wells and Williams sung about similar topics, such as infidelity, in comparable manners. List concept first: The music of Wells and Williams has in common the predominance of the steel guitar and fiddle, a strain in the higher vocal registers, distinct regional accents, and heart wrenching lyrics about infidelity and the other pains of romance. Either of these conjunctions can signal a list, which is fine if the list is parallel. Structure the items in the list so that they appear in similar ways. Each item in the list should follow naturally from the words right before the list. The easiest way to make a list parallel is to start each item in the list with the word that appeared right before the list. Once every item starts with the same word, you know it is parallel and you can remove the word. In the example below, see how you could make the sentence parallel by adding the word "as" to each item. • Not parallel: During the war, women did all sorts of new jobs, including acting as the police, truck driving, factory workers, and harvesting and planting. Parallel but awkward: During the war, women did all so~ts ~f new jobs, including acting as the police, driving trucks, working In factories, and farming land. . . Parallel: During the war, women took on new jobs as pohce officers, 3 truck drivers, factory workers, and farm laborers. Note: In the first sentence the items were a verb, a noun, a noun, ' 11 were verbs but and a verb-not parallel. In the second sentence, a . the first item was awkward. In the third sentence, all the ttems are nouns that followed naturally from "as." Eith . entence. If you can . er of these conjunctions can stgnal a run-on 5 spht a se t . . . n ence mto two, constder domg so. th Skinitz • Run-on sentence: In their study of working-class you d ' orking and Sobmon contended that the tendency of women an w WEEK 10: INSTRucnoN 241 l 242 EDITI NG YOUR SENTENCES - .-.. decisions with respect to relation~ k in and ma e . . 1science research ers as constram~ class youth toret a ships is often interpre~ed b;:~rc~evelopment, reflecting a bias that ing, rather than enab~g~t American "developmental vision" of emphasizes a .predonun ast ties to move forward. . . d f worlcing-class youth, Skinitz and heroic separation from Strong sentences: In therr : :~ :orlcing class youth tended to make Sobmon argued that won: ti and that social science researchers decisions based on famild . e.s making as constraining their su~ tended to interpret such eClSldin~ng to Skinitz and Sobmon, this inter~ . , . di ·dual growth. Accor fro . Ject5 m VI . d heroic separation m past ties, a . . " retation reflects a blaS towar p . "developmental VlSIOn . peculiarly Amencan it Either of these pronouns can signal deadwood Search for there and · . d ·th the verb to be and that or · u1 ly when parre Wl or weak verbs, partie ar .th cluster of these signal words, delete the which To improve a sentence Wl a d th · th b t0 be bring in a stronger verb, an en move si5fial words, delete e ver , the subject up to the front of the sentence. . • Cluttered: There were a great number of test tubes lymg on the ~ ? counter. Better: A number of test tubes lay on the counter. Best: Test tubes covered the counter. Cluttered: It was clear from the high attendance that there are . many who enjoy opera. Better: The high attendance clearly showed that many enJOY opera. Best: The high attendance demonstrated that many enjoy opera. Note: "There are" or "It was" can sometimes help your rhythm or transitions. So you don' t have to delete them all, just examine each instance to see if you should cut it in particular. • The pronoun it often appears without a clear antecedent. Check every instance of it and make sure its antecedent is clear. • Unclear pronoun: The experiment survived the power failure, due to the university's backup generator, but it soon grew overheated and then it was ruined. Clear pronoun: The experiment survived the power failure, due to the university's backup generator, but the generator soon overheated and the experiment was ruined. Best sentence: The university's backup generator saved the experiment when the power failed, but the generator soon overheated and the experiment was ruined. . Either of these pronouns can signal a dangling participle if they appear w1th the verb and after an introductory clause. Check every instance of these pronouns nght after a comma. tom: • Dangling: Having completed the experiment there is no reason for ' the students to stay. Attached : Having completed the exp . (i)erunent th tu reason to stay. ' e s dents had no Note: The experiment was not conduct db " students." You must change the senten e t Y ~ere" but by "the ce o av 01 d th . · g the wrong word. e Introductory clause modifyin Search for that and which and who. Any of th . . ese relative p en sigc.als d ea d wood , especially when paired .th th ronouns oft th d Wl e verb to b d ere or it. When ese wor s appear together you ft e an th ' can o en delete th For inStance, "there are many who" can become "many " 0 h em. . " b u · r, t e man who • in the front o ffICe can ecome the receptionist" v J.S . h . . lOU can often transorm a noun later 1n t e sentence mto an earlier modifi f . . . er or verb . Just be areful-sometimes that or whtch lS essential to the mearun · f th C · f g o e sentence (especially n ght a ter a comma). • Wordy: His. fundamental .belief. is that there is a confl·1ct between Sartre' s philosophy and his ethics. Clear: He believes that Sartre' s philosophy conflicts wi~ his ethics. II • Wordy: Poor households pay more for the food that they buy because local merchants exploit them. Clean: Poor households pay more for their food because local merchants exploit them. • Wordy: Government facilities can only spend funds that are available. Clean: Government facilities can only spend available funds. • Wordy: It should be noted that there are several who did not agree with the verdict. Better: Several did not agree with the verdict. Clean: Several disagreed with the verdict. Note: See the section on "not" below for advice on how to do the second revision. st; Search for prepositions like by, of, to, for, toward, on, frOm, In, with, and as. Any of these prepositions, especially when they appear in clu~­ ters, often signal unneeded phrases. You can improve the sentence m ~hich these phrases appear by deleting the phrases or changing nouns mto modifiers. • Wordy: In order to pass the test in the field of sociology, you must study the textbook. k Clean: To pass the sociology test, you must study the textboo · , • hould encourage it by YYOrdy: Wttb reference to democracy, we s · way of a free press. Clean: We should encourage democracy with a free press. ur • Cluttered· In the case of a great number of developing countrifes; . h e of the year a th.e volume of production rose over t ~ cours higher than the predictions of the economtsts. WEEK 10 INSTRUCTIQ~ 243 244 EDITING YOUR SENTENCES -(i)d tion of many developing countries roSe Clean: The yea rly pro uc . d mists predicte . higher than econo . f many developing countries exceeded Best: The yearly production o . t ' predictions. d . economiS s . countries' yearly pro uction exceeded Clean: Many developmg . . . . Omists' predictions. econ . f 1 that the third reviSion 1s gomg too far Note: Some will ee 5 tring of five adjectives and nouns. You the subJ·ect is now a · · f as . h d revision and avmd strmgs o nouns in can stay with t e secon a row. .. ft · 1 verbs buried as nouns (called nominalizaPreposth_ o n l ls o h en SI~~d with pronouns like it. If you can unbury the . tions), espeCia y w en pat verb consider doing so. . : Buried verbs: In the event that I forget to explam th e purpo~ of the article, please send an e-mail to me with a reminder about 1t. Unburied verbs: If I forget to explain the article's purpose, please remind me in an e-mail. Prepositions often signal wordy constructions, especially when paired with the verb to be. If you can replace the prepositional phrase with an adjective, consider doing so. • Wordy: It is a question of some importance how Russians remember Stalin. Strong: An important question is how Russians remember Stalin. Strings of prepositional phrases often signal awkward sentence constructions. Evaluate each sentence with three or more prepositions. If you can rewrite the sentence without some of them, consider doing so. • Cluttered: There had been major changes in the presentation related to the data accumulated as a consequence of exhaustive study of the results of treatment in cancers of the head and neck, breast, and gynecological tract. Clean: The author changed her presentation after exhaustively studying the results of treated cancers of the head and neck, breast, and gynecological tract. Note: Not all prepositions were removed · some were needed. Avoid repla~g strings of prepositions with strings of adjectives (e.g., see the yearly production" example above). ·· · d Prepositions often sign 1 1 tt word s 11.ke fact kind sorta hc1 u ered wntmg, especially when pa1re can rewrite th ; ' . ' ·lPe, way, form, vanety, range, and so on. If you • Wordy~Nsekn kence Without them, consider doing so. · u u was the typ 0 f · d . . k his mind. e tn tvtdual who could not rna e up WJ·th Better: Nkuku was an · d · ·d d Better: Nkuk ld tn lVI ual who could not make up his min · u cou not make hi . Clean: Nkuku wa . d . . up s mmd. S tn eClSlVe. • N'ordy: Due to the fact that I have to teach at t . (i)able to con1e to your talk. hat tune, I will not be Better: I have to teach at that time so I ill ' w not be able to attend your talk. Clean: I cannot attend your talk because I h . . ave to teach th Note: Sometunes switching the sentence around en. problem. can solve the • vVordy: The way in which the candidates d was observed by the election observers. con ucted themselves Better: The election observers observed how the candid ducted themselves. ates conClean: The election observers monitored the cand1·d a tes , con d uct. Test Pan II: Words that Ml2ht Need to Be Added ot~nostlc ' • {' '' Jt' ' • I • ' , ' • Sometimes y~u need to add a fe~ extr~ word~, not cut a few. Look at your pronoW1S to see if y~u need ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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