1.please read the article from my classmate and finish the Workshop2.Please answer by question ,each

  

1.please read the article from my classmate and finish the Workshop2.Please answer by question ,each question should have three or more sentence, the answer don’t have to be a long sentence.
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Ethan Hoadley
ENGL101
Mrs. Flamm
Position Paper
Have you ever had a nice cold glass of milk and a warm soft cookie right from the oven?
It’s heaven. The cookie soaks in just the right amount of milk to melt in your mouth. When you
pop it into your mouth, it’s like biting into a soft cloud of cookies and cream. But, there is an
associated urgency with that ratio – timing is key. It’s best to time it just right so you get the right
proportion of milk to cookie, as milk tends to dissolve cookies into inedible mush. Individually,
each of these delicious ingredients have definitive strengths and weaknesses. Consumed in the
optimal ratio, they become the perfect snacking experience.
The relationship between milk and cookies is like that of language and social media. Just
as milk can soften a cookie to mush, social media is extremely good at breaking issues down and
offering people opportunities for analysis on complicated and divisive topics. Just as cookies
take a long time to bake, language is sometimes slow to develop to changes in social
circumstances. Cookies, like language, are a construct of many different processed and natural
resources. Language is a social construct, designed and structured about rigorous rules and
recipes. It gives us a formation to convey our thoughts. Milk, like social media, is a free-flowing
liquid that permeates most submerged objects. As a fluid, it takes the shape of its container.
Social media exists on many different platforms, and the thoughts ebb and flow differently on
each. The development of social media platforms has put the cookies and milk together so to
speak. This is a great thing for the consumers because it’s an awesome snack but if social media
has too much interaction with language in the long run … mush.
Before the age of digital communication, language interacted with culture in a similar
way that it interacts with social media today. The difference is that before social media, culture
and language evolved simultaneously. New words were created when the necessity arose and
old words tended to die out when their applicability faltered and the generations using those
semantics moved on. No one speaks in old English anymore. Therefore, it would be foolishly
arrogant to assert that language is a constant. It is a tool that reflects its culture. And it is because
of this relationship that there are over 5,000 known languages and dialects worldwide. Language
has always adapted to model its surroundings. Words, phrases and dialects have evolved,
devolved and simply changed as necessity has changed their purpose. Much like Darwinism,
words have lifetimes that are determined by their usefulness or popularity. Modern semantic
language is always changing to reflect what words we find most useful, promoting those that are,
and leaving antiquated turns of phrase to history.
Subsequent to this constant evolution, our language reflects our common interests, goals
and modern communication methods. Tools such as social media have furthered the evolution of
communication techniques and allowed for the formation of new words and acronyms. To
understand the relationship between social media and language, one should look to the modern
culture and our methods of communication. Social media platforms are driving the direction and
intentions of our communication: their reach is far but their focus is narrow.
Social media engines such as Twitter have streamlined online communication and
expression. Twitter has shown a very different initiative than other social media sites in this,
because Twitter has a 140-character limit. That limitation forces users to find new language to
convey more information in a smaller physical length. Interestingly, this limitation has inspired
users of the social media site to develop their own vernacular: abbreviations. Shorter abbreviated
phrases like “brb”; “ttyl”; and “LOL” have grown in popularity quickly. This development is
incredibly interesting as it proves that, when faced with limitations, we adapt our language to fit
our needs. The need is to communicate, to get our message to our audience. Language is
adapting to help us do just that.
****
The history of language is complex and multi-faceted. There are over 5000 known
languages and dialects worldwide, most hailing from Africa and the Middle East. The languages
that are most well recognized today originated from the Indo-European nomads of western Asia
and east Europe (modern day Ukraine). Among these languages are English, French, Spanish,
German, Greek, Russian, and others. The other popular group of languages is known as the
Semitic family. This genre of language is similar to modern Arabic and Hebrew, and is rooted in
Syria, Pakistan, India and other Middle-East and Southeast-Asia countries (Bamber). This is
incredibly fascinating for a few reasons: languages have developed differently despite temporal
similarity, and languages have developed to reflect their respective cultures.
Historically, language has always changed to model its surroundings. Words, phrases and
dialects have evolved, devolved and simply changed as necessity has changed their purpose.
Much like Darwinism, words have lifetimes that are determined by their usefulness or
popularity. Modern semantic is always changing to reflect what words we find most useful,
promoting those that are, and leaving antiquated turns of phrase to history.
Subsequently to this constant evolution, our language reflects our common interests,
goals and modern tools. Tools such as social media have furthered the evolution of
communication techniques and allowed for the formation of new words and acronyms. This
being said, social media has accelerated this evolution in communication and language. To
understand the relationship between social media and language, one should look to these three
foci: social media’s interactions with language today, words that are being made obsolete and
how worldwide culture has been affected by this rapid technological change.

How has culture changed language?
o Pace of culture and language evolution

Social media has allowed language to evolve much more quickly than
culture, leading to problems in communication. For example, digital
immigrants vs digital natives.
Language evolves much like animals do. To increase effective communication, words are
constantly being added, changed, and removed. This evolution is entirely necessary for the
development of our language, and must be promoted so that our communication is as efficient as
possible. Generally, these lexicon changes are updated regularly by official dictionaries like
Merriam Webster…
Every month, Merriam-Webster adds words to its dictionary. In April of 2019, over 640
new words were added. According to the company, “The work of revising a dictionary is
constant, and it mirrors the culture’s need to make sense of the world with words.” Cultural
trends towards social equality, environmental sustainability, technological progress and
innovations have all culminated in the necessity for new words. Old words gain new meanings,
for example: the word “purple” used to be just a color, but its definition has now been officially
updated to represent “a geographic area where Democratic and Republican voters are split in the
United States.” Additionally, new phrases are coined to simplify explanations: screen-time is the
amount of time that we spend using technology daily. These words serve to speed
communication and make long-winded explanations less necessary. If both individuals in a
conversation know the background, there’s no need to review it. New words are formed in all
sorts of areas, from political affiliation to business and entertainment, people find shortcuts to
make communication easier and more cohesive.
Interestingly, Merriam-Webster also takes an active stance on the mis-interpretation of
words. For example, in the recent turmoil of the US over the “concentration camps” on the
southern border, @MerriamWebster offered the shared denotation, making an active
participation and stance on the common topic. Or the definition of “Animus,” which delas with
representative investigations like the Mueller probe. Finally, when President Trump tweeted
“Met with the Prince of Whales,” @MerriamWebster trolled him with “Whales: large aquatic
marine mammals, Wails: expresses sorrow audibly, Wales: a country in the UK.”
More importantly than new words however, are abbreviations. Short phrases like “LOL”
have tremendously risen in popularity in social media. This is primarily because of two things:
speed and emotion. Physically, it is faster and easier to write abbreviations like “LOL” instead of
its long-winded counterpart: “Laugh Out Loud,” so, being the far more convenient option, they
became extremely popular. Secondly, abbreviations became new words themselves. “LOL”
became a word, with associated emotions of joy and mirth. Being able to convey real-time
emotions with simple abbreviations is an invaluable function of language, and it has been
incredibly enhanced by social media recently. ¯_(ツ)_/¯

How does language develop today?
o Emoticons

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emoticon

Good guide for synopsis, focus on the development of Twitter
emoticons & the Walmart copyright scandal.
o Social media platforms like Twitter…

Twitter is a great example of the relationship between language and social media:
o Why did Twitter originally have a 140-character limit?

Because when texting was brand-new, there was a 160-character limit on
the length of texts. This thoughtfulness allowed texts to be directly
tweeted to the social platform.
o What has been the effect of the 140-character limit?

Twitter cofounder Jack Dorsey muses on the 140-character limit.: “some
things can’t be said in under 140 characters. especially after some
champagne.”

Hacks and browser plugins have offered users shortcuts around the 140limit. But they have been bought out and deleted by the company.
(TwitLonger, TallTweets, JumboTweet, Pasted, Tweenjoy)
o Twitter decided to change to a 280 limit

Users were chafing with the arbitrary limit, and switching to other
websites to avoid it.

Facebook, Quora, Google+

Texts lost their limit, so it made little practical sense for twitter to maintain
the limitation on its users.

How has Twitter allowed culture worldwide to flourish?
o #movements

#MeToo has started a global revolution for gender equality.
o @GretaThunberg

Green movements around the world have become unified through social
media.
o Social activism and protests have gone worldwide. For example, the protests in
Hong Kong over extradition to China have received mass media attention around
the world.

Tie back to cookies and cream:
o In an age of global change, social media has truly drawn us closer together than
ever before. Social media has accelerated our communication, in doing so it has
accelerated the evolution of our common language. In a very real sense, language
and social media are very much like cookies and cream, but this analogy is
incomplete, as social media has also inspired new words, abbreviations and forms
of communication. A much better analogy could be social media is a wildfire. It
changes language and rebuffs tradition, but it also clears dangerous brush from
the forest floor, and offers an opportunity for new words to grow in the aftermath.

(I need to add more to this analogy, but I like where it’s going.)
Peer Review Session for Final Position Paper
1. What is the paper’s thesis? How could it be improved?
2. Write 2-3 full sentences describing the paper’s “flow” – meaning,
specifically, how the writer transitions between ideas. Are topic
sentences clear? Are there gaps that need closing? Should the writer try
breaking up the text into sub-sections?
3. Write 2-3 sentences describing the issue’s exigence. Why does the author
care about this issue, and how do they get you to care? What is at stake
with this issue? How could the issue’s be more clearly illustrated or made
more memorable?
4. Describe any credibility issues you notice within the paper – logical
fallacies, unfounded claims, oversimplification of a complex issue, or
attempts to pass off subjective statements as objectively true.
5. How does this paper make you feel?
6. What have you learned from this paper? What has the writer helped you
to understand?

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